Olea europea

Family: Oleaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Local Availability

Cultivated all over the country

Worldwide Availability

Native to the Mediterranean, Asia, and Africa

Botanical Description 16

The olive tree, is an evergreen tree or shrub. It is short and squat, and rarely exceeds 8–15 m (26–49 ft) in height. The leaves are silvery green in colour, oblong, measuring 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) lon

Common Ethnobotanical Use 17

The oil from the pericarp is cholagogue, a nourishing demulcent, emollient and laxative. Eating the oil reduces gastric secretions and is therefore of benefit to patients suffering from hyperacidity. It is used externally to treat pruritis, the effects of stings or burns and as a vehicle for liniments and ointments. The oil can be used with alcohol and it is a good hair tonic and used with oil of rosemary it is a good treatment for dandruff. The leaves are antiseptic, astringent, febrifuge and sedative. A decoction is used in treating obstinate fevers, they also have a tranquillising effect on nervous tension and hypertension. Experimentally, they have been shown to decrease blood sugar. The bark is astringent, bitter and febrifuge. It is said to be a substitute for quinine in the treatment of malaria. In warm countries the bark exudes a gum-like substance that has been used as a vulnerary. The plant is used in 'Complete exhaustion' and 'Mental fatigue'.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
3-Methylbutanal6
Heptane6
TolueneLeaf4, 6
OctaneLeaf2
HexanalLeaf2, 4, 6
p-XyleneLeaf4, 6
Vinylbenzene6
BenzaldehydeLeaf2, 6
2-PentylfuranLeaf2, 6
LimoneneLeaf4, 6
1,8-Cineole6
LinaloolLeaf2, 6
NonanalLeaf2
alpha-TerpineolLeaf2, 6
beta-Damascenone Leaf2
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf2, 4
3-Ethylpyridine6
Methyl benzoate 6
OctanolLeaf4, 6
Decan-2-one6
(2E,4E)-Decadienal6
beta-Farnesene6
delta-CadineneLeaf4
(E,E)-alpha-farneseneLeaf2
6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-oneLeaf4
Benzyl alcohol6
gamma-Terpinene6
Camphor6
4-TerpineolLeaf2
Methyl salicylate6
Hexyl butanoateLeaf2
DecanalLeaf2
(E)-2-decenalLeaf2
Cyclosativene6
beta-BourboneneLeaf4
alpha-HumuleneLeaf2
beta-SelineneLeaf2
ValenceneLeaf4
Caryophyllene oxideLeaf2
Trigonelline6
Luteolin 7-O-beta-glucopyranosideLeaf3
Apigenin 7-O-beta-glucopyranosideLeaf3
(+)-Catechin1
4-HydroxyphenylethanolLeaf1, 3
Ellagic acidLeaf3
Ethyl decanoate6
beta-Pinene6
alpha-PineneLeaf4, 6
beta-Sesquiphellandrene6
OcimeneLeaf4
Camphene6
alpha-Muurolene6
2-ButanoneFruit5
2-HexenalLeaf2
p-CymeneLeaf4, 6
Terpinolene6
(Z)-3-Hexenyl acetateLeaf4
(Z)-3-HexenolLeaf2, 4
alpha-CopaeneLeaf4, 6
Germacrene DLeaf2, 4
alpha-Terpinene6
HexanolLeaf; Fruit2, 5
Phenol6
Isovaleric acidLeaf4
ActeosideLeaf3
2-Methoxy-4-methyl phenol6
Acetic acidFruit5
4-methylphenol6
Guaiacol6
4-vinylphenol6
4-ethylguaiacol6
1-Heptanol6
Acetic acid phenylmethyl ester6
2-Methylbutanal6
PhenylacetaldehydeLeaf2, 6
3-Methylbutan-1-olLeaf2
Pentan-1-olFruit5
Propanoic acidFruit5
LuteinLeaf3
(E)-2-Decenol6
Nonanol6
alpha-CubebeneLeaf4
OctanalLeaf2
HeptanalLeaf2
cis-3-Hexenyl butanoateLeaf2, 4
beta-CyclocitralLeaf2
(E)-beta-DamasconeLeaf2
Dehydro-p-CymeneLeaf2
2-Phenylethyl alcohol6
Ethyl (E)-cinnamate6
1-Butanol-2-methyl6
(Z)-3-Hexenyl benzoateLeaf2
(E)-NerolidolLeaf2
LiguloxideLeaf2
1-Octen-3-one6
AcetoinFruit5
Ethyl acetateFruit5
EthanolLeaf; Fruit2, 5
Isoamyl acetate6
1-ButanolFruit5
2-HexenolLeaf2
(E)-2-heptenalLeaf2
(E)-2-octenalLeaf2
Ethyl octanoate6
2-ethyl-1-hexanol6
(E,E)-2,4-heptadienalLeaf2
1-propanolFruit5
Isobutanol Fruit5
Ethyl hexanoate6
Hexyl acetateLeaf4, 6
Methyl octanoate6
Methyl decanoate6
2-Phenylethyl acetate6
Ethyl nonanoate6
Ethyl 2-methylbutyrate6
Propyl benzoate6
2-Methylbutyl acetate6
3-Methylbutyl butanoate6
Butan-2-olFruit5
Pentan-2-olFruit5
Pentan-3-olFruit5
Hexan-3-olLeaf4
Pentanal6
Propyl acetateFruit5
Ethyl propanoateFruit5
2-Methylbutanoic acidLeaf4
Ethyl 3-methylbutanoate6
Dehydro-1,8-cineoleLeaf2
Ethyl benzoate6
TheaspiraneLeaf2
Fenchol6
OleuropeinLeaf1, 3
1-UndeceneLeaf2
o-HydroxycumeneLeaf2
(E)-2-Hexenyl butyrateLeaf2
(E)-3-Caren-2-olLeaf2
(E)-2-Hexenyl benzoateLeaf2
KongolLeaf2
HydroxytyrosolLeaf3
SesamolLeaf3
(Z)-3-Hexenoic acidLeaf4
(E)-2-Hexenoic acidLeaf4
(Z)-3-Hexenyl isobutyrateLeaf4
Propyl propanoateFruit5
4-Penten-1-olFruit5
(E)-But-2-enol6
(E)-2-Methylbut-2-enal6
2-Butoxyethanol6
3-Ethenylpyridine6
Octa-2,3-dione6
(E,E)-Hepta-2,4-dien-1-ol6
3-Ethyl-4-methylpyridine6
Propyl hexanoate6
(E)-4,8-Dimethylnona-1,37-triene6
Ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate6
2,2,6,7-Tetramethylbicyclo[4.3.0] nona-4,7,9-(1)-triene6
Vitispirane6
Theaspirane A6
Nonyl acetate6
Theaspirane B6
Ethyl 3-phenylpropionate6
Methyl 4-formylbenzoate6
1,1,6-Trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene6
Undec-2-enal6

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Fruit
Ethanol CNS Depressant 15
Fruit; Leaf
Methanol Antibacterial 8
Leaf
Ethanol Leukemia 7
Water Antibacterial 9
Methanol Antifungal 10
Ethanol Antidiabetic 12
Ethanol Antihypertensive 13
Ethanol Antiulcerant 14
Leaf; Twig
Ethanol Antiviral 11

References

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  • 2 Campeol, E., Flamini, G., Chericoni, S., Catalano, S. and Cremonini, R. (2001) Volatile compounds from three cultivars of Olea europaea from Italy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 5409-5411.
  • 3 Hayes, J., Allen, P., Brunton, N., O’grady, M. and Kerry, J. (2011) Phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity of four commercial phytochemical products: Olive leaf extract (Olea europaea L.), lutein, sesamol and ellagic acid. Food Chemistry, 126, 948-955.
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  • 7 Fares, R., Bazzi, S., Baydoun, S.E. and Abdel-Massih, R.M. (2011) The antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of the Lebanese Olea europaea extract. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 66, 58-63.
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  • 10 Bokhari, F.M. (2009) Antifungal activity of some medicinal plants used in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Mycopath, 7, 51-57.
  • 11 ERTÜRK, Ö., DEMİRBAĞ, Z. and BELDÜZ, A.O. (2000) Antiviral Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Replication of Autographa californicaNuclear Polyhedrosis Virus. Turkish Journal of Biology, 24, 833-844.
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  • 13 Khayyal, M.T., El-Ghazaly, M.A., Abdallah, D.M., Nassar, N.N., Okpanyi, S.N. and Kreuter, M.-H. (2002) Blood pressure lowering effect of an olive leaf extract (Olea europaea) in L-NAME induced hypertension in rats. Arzneimittel Forschung, 52, 797-802.
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