Oryza sativa L.

Family: Poaceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Dhan (Bangla), Rice (English)

Local Availability

Different ecological regions of Bangladesh

Worldwide Availability

India, Thailand, and Southern China

Botanical Description 17

The plant is a grass species with erect, cylindrical, hollow, jointed and striate stems, from 1 to 1.5 meters. The leaves are flat, with long close sheaths, prominent ligule. Leaf blade is linear, 15

Common Ethnobotanical Use 18

Rice, boiled, drained and mashed, is made into a paste or molded into balls and applied to boils, sores, swellings, and skin blemishes. Rice water can be used as an enema and can be prescribed as ointment to counteract inflamed surfaces. Sticky glutinous rice used to treat upset stomachs, heartburn, and indigestion. Extracts of brown rice have been used to treat warts, breast and stomach cancers. Also used for indigestion, nausea, and diarrhea. Dried powdered rice used for skin ailments. Boiled rice greens used as eye lotion and inflammation of inner body tissues. Poultice of soft rice, applied to back and chest for coughs and bronchitis. In Ayurveda, it is widely used as health food and in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis, neurodegenerative diseases, and in rejuvenation therapy.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Hexadecanoic acidSeed2
Linoleic acidGrain8
Octadecanoic acidSeed2
Lignoceric acidSeed2
n-Octanoic acidGrain8
Linolenic acidBran6
Oleic acidGrain8
Lauric acidGrain8
Arachidic AcidBran6
Myristic acidSeed2
Pentadecanoic acidGrain8
Behenic acidSeed2
Decanoic acidGrain8
Palmitoleic acidBran6
Caproic acidGrain8
Tridecanoic acidGrain8
Undecylenic acidSeed2
Myristoleic acidGrain8
24-Methylenecycloartanol Bran4
Margaric acidSeed2
Erucic acidGrain8
cis-Vaccenic acidGrain8
9,12-Octadecadienoic acidSeed2
9-Octadecenoic acidSeed2
Tricosanoic acidGrain8
Octacosanoic acidHull5
10-Octadecenoic acidSeed2
11,14,17-Eicosatrienoic acidSeed2
Gondoic acid Bran6
Ethanol, 2-(9,12-octadecadienyloxy)Seed2
Octadecatrienoic acid Seed2
Glucuronic acidRoot3
Momilactone AHull5
Momilactone BHull5
3,7-Dimethyl-n-octan-1-yl benzoateHull5
Hexadecadienoic acidGrain8
Octadecatetraenoic acidGrain8
cis-11,14,17-Eicosatrienoic acidGrain8
Eicosatetraenoic acidGrain8
5,4'-Dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-beta-D-xylopyr-anosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-2c-octadecanoate Straw7
Kaempferol-3-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-hexadecanoate Straw7
Methyl salicylate-2-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-2d-O-alpha-Dxylopyranosyl-(2e→1f)-2e-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2f→1g)-2f-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(2g→1h)-2g-O-alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-2h-geranilan-8',10'-dioic acid-1'-oate Straw7
Oleoyl-beta-D-arabinoside Straw7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Black Rice
Ethanol Antiasthmatic 10
Ethanol Antimetastatic 13
Joha Rice
Ethanol Antiarthritic 11
Aqueous Antibacterial 12
Methanol Antianaphylactic 9
Aqueous Leukemia 15
Rice Bran
Policosanol Antiplatelet 14
Aqueous Antidiabetic 16


  • 1 Nantiyakul, N., Furse, S., Fisk, I., Foster, T.J., Tucker, G. and Gray, D.A. (2012) Phytochemical composition of Oryza sativa (rice) bran oil bodies in crude and purified isolates. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 89, 1867-1872.
  • 2 Jiao, Z., Si, X.-x., Li, G.-k., Zhang, Z.-m. and Xu, X.-p. (2010) Unintended compositional changes in transgenic rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) studied by spectral and chromatographic analysis coupled with chemometrics methods. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58, 1746-1754.
  • 3 Bacilio-Jiménez, M., Aguilar-Flores, S., Ventura-Zapata, E., Pérez-Campos, E., Bouquelet, S. and Zenteno, E. (2003) Chemical characterization of root exudates from rice (Oryza sativa) and their effects on the chemotactic response of endophytic bacteria. Plant and Soil, 249, 271-277.
  • 4 Gunawan, S., Vali, S.R. and Ju, Y.-H. (2006) Purification and identification of rice bran oil fatty acid steryl and wax esters. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 83, 449-456.
  • 5 Chung, I.M., Ali, M., Ahmad, A., Lim, J.D., Yu, C.Y. and Kim, J.S. (2006) Chemical constituents of rice (Oryza sativa) hulls and their herbicidal activity against duckweed (Lemna paucicostata Hegelm 381). Phytochemical Analysis, 17, 36-45.
  • 6 Suzuki, Y., Yasui, T., Matsukura, U. and Terao, J. (1996) Oxidative stability of bran lipids from rice variety [Oryza sativa (L.)] lacking lipoxygenase-3 in seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44, 3479-3483.
  • 7 Ahmad, A., Kim, S.-H., Ali, M., Park, I., Kim, J.-S., Kim, E.-H., Lim, J.-J., Kim, S.-K. and Chung, I.-M. (2013) New chemical constituents from oryza sativa straw and their algicidal activities against blue-green algae. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 61, 8039-8048.
  • 8 Thomas, R., Bhat, R. and Kuang, Y. (2015) Composition of amino Acids, fatty acids, minerals and dietary fiber in some of the local and import rice varieties of Malaysia.
  • 9 Kim, H.M., Yi, D.-K. and Shin, H.Y. (1999) The evaluation of antianaphylactic effect of Oryza sativa L. in rats. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 27, 63-71.
  • 10 Lee, S.-H., Choi, S.M., Sohn, Y.S., Kang, K.K. and Yoo, M. (2006) Effect of Oryza sativa extract on the progression of airway inflammation and remodeling in an experimental animal model of asthma. Planta medica, 72, 405-410.
  • 11 Rashid, M.A., Haque, M.R., Sikder, M.A.A., Chowdhury, A.A., Rahman, M.S. and Hasan, C.M. (2015) Review on chemistry and bioactivities of secondary metabolites from some medicinal plants and microbes of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 17, 1-17.
  • 12 Firdous, S.J. and Bharathi, V. (2014) Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of oryza sativa. World J. Pharm. Sci., 3, 1136-1139.
  • 13 Fan, M.-J., Wang, I.-C., Hsiao, Y.-T., Lin, H.-Y., Tang, N.-Y., Hung, T.-C., Quan, C., Lien, J.-C. and Chung, J.-G. (2015) Anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) demonstrate antimetastatic properties by reducing MMPs and NF-κB expressions in human oral cancer CAL 27 cells. Nutrition and cancer, 67, 327-338.
  • 14 Wong, W.-T., Ismail, M., Imam, M.U. and Zhang, Y.-D. (2016) Modulation of platelet functions by crude rice (Oryza sativa) bran policosanol extract. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16, 252.
  • 15 Liao, H.-F., Chen, Y.-Y., Yang, Y.-C., Wang, C.-S. and Chen, Y.-J. (2006) Rice (Oryza sativa L.) inhibits growth and induces differentiation of human leukemic U937 cells through activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Food and chemical toxicology, 44, 1724-1729.
  • 16 Hikino, H., Takahashi, M., Oshima, Y. and Konno, C. (1988) Isolation and Hypoglycemic Activity of Oryzabrans A, B, C and D, Glycans of Oryza sativa Bran1. Planta medica, 54, 1-3.
  • 17 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 18 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.