Punica granatum

Family: Punicaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Dalim, Anar, Bedana (Bengali), Pomegrante (English), Shi liu (Chinese), Granatapfel (German),  Anar (Hindi).

Local Availability

Planted throughout the Bangladesh.

Worldwide Availability

Native of southwestern Asia.Garden plant in the Philippines. Nowhere spontaneous.Has been introduced in all tropical countries.

Botanical Description 26

A large deciduous shrub, often armed.Flowers 3.8-5 cm length and as much across, bright red, mostly solitary, sometimes 2-4 together. Leaves opposite, 3.5-5 cm length, oblong-oblanceolate or oblong-la

Common Ethnobotanical Use 27

The stem bark is astringent; strengthens gums; used in colic, prolapsusani and piles. Root bark is very astringent; decoction is used specifically for tapeworm. Fruit juice is cooling; cures dyspepsia.Unripe fruits are tonic and good appetizer; rind of the fruit is useful in the treatment of chronic dysentery and diarrhoea; decoction of the rind followed by a purgative, acts as an anthelmintic. A decoction of the dried fruit rind is drunk for the relief of dysentery and stomachache, while an infusion of the same material is taken for colitis. The seeds are considered stomachic and the pulp is stomachic and cardiac tonic. Rind of the fruit was found safe and highly effectivefor the treatment of loose motion in clinical trial. Extract of the fruit inactivates several intestinal viruses, polio virus and herpes simplex virus.Methanolic extract of fruit rind exhibits significant antibacterial activity. Alcohol extract showed significant biological activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
alpha-TerpineolLeaf10
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf10
(2E,6E)-Farnesyl acetateLeaf10
beta-BisaboleneLeaf10
SabineneLeaf10
gamma-TerpineneLeaf10
4-TerpineolFruit11
ThymolLeaf10
beta-ElemeneLeaf10
alpha-HumuleneLeaf10
Humulene epoxide IILeaf10
DopamineLeaf18
beta-PineneFruit11
alpha-PineneFruit11
beta-SesquiphellandreneLeaf10
alpha-MuuroleneLeaf; Root8
MyrceneFruit11
p-CymeneLeaf10
TerpinoleneLeaf10
PatchulaneBark9
allo-AromadendereneLeaf10
ElemolLeaf10
Germacrene D-4-olLeaf10
beta-EudesmolLeaf; Root8
Benzyl benzoateLeaf10
AnnoreticuinLeaf; Seed1, 3
IsoannoreticuinLeaf1
SalsolinolLeaf14
CoclaurineLeaf15
ReticulineRoot2, 13
Kaur-16-ene-19-oic acidBark6, 12
MolvizarinStem Bark4
Rolliniastatin-2Stem Bark4, 5
ReticullacinoneStem Bark4
CopaeneLeaf; Root; Bark8, 9
Rolliniastatin16
Squamosine16
BullatacinSeed; Bark3, 6
cis and trans-IsomurisoleninSeed3
SquamocinSeed3
AcetogeninsSeed17
Germacrene DFruit11
LimoneneFruit11
AnnomonicinLeaf5
SolaminLeaf5
SquamoneLeaf5
Annoreticuin-9-oneSeed; Leaf3, 5
cis-trans-BullactacinoneSeed3
SpathulenolLeaf; Root8
1H-cycloprop(e)azuleneBark9
ReticulatacinBark6
NorushinsunineRoot13
LiriodenineBark; Root6, 13
NeoannoninRoot13
BenzylisoquinolineSeed19
AporphineSeed19
alpha-PhellandreneLeaf10
trans-Sabinene hydrateLeaf10
PinocarvoneLeaf10
delta-TerpineolLeaf10
MyrtenolLeaf10
CuminaldehydeLeaf10
beta-CedreneLeaf10
SesquisabineneLeaf10
ar-CurcumeneLeaf10
ZingibereneLeaf10
(Ε)-gamma-BisaboleneLeaf10
ar-TurmeroneLeaf10
(6S,7R)-BisaboloneLeaf10
(Ε)-alpha-AtlantoneLeaf10
Adriamycin20
14-Hydroxy-25-desoxyrollinicinStem Bark7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Flower
Aqueous Antidiabetic 20
Aqueous; Methanol; Ethanol; Ether Analgesic 23
Fruit
Methanol Antibacterial 11
Methanol; Aqueous Antifungal 15
Juice Antiplatelet 24
Fruit Rind
Aqueous Ethanol Analgesic 21
Husk
Crude Antidiabetic 23
Leaf
Ethanol Antidiabetic 22
Ethanol Anticonvulsant 19
Ethanol; Aqueous Lung Cancer 11
Leaf; Stem; Flower; Fruit
Methanol Myeloma 18
Peel
Ethyl Acetate; Acetone; Methanol; Aqueous Antibacterial 12
Ethanol Antibacterial 13
Methanol Antifungal 14
Aqueous Antiulcerant 19
Aqueous Antidiabetic 21
Methanol Anthelmintic 25
Rind
Methanol Antiarthritic 17
Methanol Antiulcerant 18
Aqueous Anthelmintic 18
Seed
Ethanol Antiarthritic 16
Ethanol Anticonvulsant 24
Ethanol CNS Depressant 15
Methanol Lung Cancer 16
Methanol Breast Cancer 17
Methanol Prostate Cancer 17
Ethanol Skin Cancer 17
Ethanol Lung Cancer 18
Ethanol Prostate Cancer 18
Ethanol Breast Cancer 18

References

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  • 2 Negi, P. and Jayaprakasha, G. (2003) Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Punica granatum peel extracts. Journal of Food Science, 68, 1473-1477.
  • 3 Choi, J.-G., Kang, O.-H., Lee, Y.-S., Chae, H.-S., Oh, Y.-C., Brice, O.-O., Kim, M.-S., Sohn, D.-H., Kim, H.-S. and Park, H. (2011) In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of Punica granatum peel ethanol extract against Salmonella. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011.
  • 4 Abdollahzadeh, S., Mashouf, R., Mortazavi, H., Moghaddam, M., Roozbahani, N. and Vahedi, M. (2011) Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Punica granatum peel extracts against oral pathogens. Journal of Dentistry (Tehran, Iran), 8, 1.
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  • 7 Gupta, G. and Gautam, R.K. Evaluation of anti-arthritic activity of butanol fraction of Punica granatum Linn. rind extract against Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology.
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  • 9 Gharzouli, K., Khennouf, S., Amira, S. and Gharzouli, A. (1999) Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex l. root bark, Punica granatum l. fruit peel and Artemisia herba‐alba Asso leaves on ethanol‐induced gastric damage in rats. Phytotherapy Research, 13, 42-45.
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