Punica granatum

Family: Punicaceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Dalim, Anar, Bedana (Bengali), Pomegrante (English), Shi liu (Chinese), Granatapfel (German),  Anar (Hindi).

Local Availability

Planted throughout the Bangladesh.

Worldwide Availability

Native of southwestern Asia.Garden plant in the Philippines. Nowhere spontaneous.Has been introduced in all tropical countries.

Botanical Description 26

A large deciduous shrub, often armed.Flowers 3.8-5 cm length and as much across, bright red, mostly solitary, sometimes 2-4 together. Leaves opposite, 3.5-5 cm length, oblong-oblanceolate or oblong-la

Common Ethnobotanical Use 27

The stem bark is astringent; strengthens gums; used in colic, prolapsusani and piles. Root bark is very astringent; decoction is used specifically for tapeworm. Fruit juice is cooling; cures dyspepsia.Unripe fruits are tonic and good appetizer; rind of the fruit is useful in the treatment of chronic dysentery and diarrhoea; decoction of the rind followed by a purgative, acts as an anthelmintic. A decoction of the dried fruit rind is drunk for the relief of dysentery and stomachache, while an infusion of the same material is taken for colitis. The seeds are considered stomachic and the pulp is stomachic and cardiac tonic. Rind of the fruit was found safe and highly effectivefor the treatment of loose motion in clinical trial. Extract of the fruit inactivates several intestinal viruses, polio virus and herpes simplex virus.Methanolic extract of fruit rind exhibits significant antibacterial activity. Alcohol extract showed significant biological activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf10
(2E,6E)-Farnesyl acetateLeaf10
Humulene epoxide IILeaf10
alpha-MuuroleneLeaf; Root8
Germacrene D-4-olLeaf10
beta-EudesmolLeaf; Root8
Benzyl benzoateLeaf10
AnnoreticuinLeaf; Seed1, 3
ReticulineRoot2, 13
Kaur-16-ene-19-oic acidBark6, 12
MolvizarinStem Bark4
Rolliniastatin-2Stem Bark4, 5
ReticullacinoneStem Bark4
CopaeneLeaf; Root; Bark8, 9
BullatacinSeed; Bark3, 6
cis and trans-IsomurisoleninSeed3
Germacrene DFruit11
Annoreticuin-9-oneSeed; Leaf3, 5
SpathulenolLeaf; Root8
LiriodenineBark; Root6, 13
trans-Sabinene hydrateLeaf10
14-Hydroxy-25-desoxyrollinicinStem Bark7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Aqueous Antidiabetic 20
Aqueous; Methanol; Ethanol; Ether Analgesic 23
Methanol Antibacterial 11
Methanol; Aqueous Antifungal 15
Juice Antiplatelet 24
Fruit Rind
Aqueous Ethanol Analgesic 21
Crude Antidiabetic 23
Ethanol Antidiabetic 22
Ethanol Anticonvulsant 19
Ethanol; Aqueous Lung Cancer 11
Leaf; Stem; Flower; Fruit
Methanol Myeloma 18
Ethyl Acetate; Acetone; Methanol; Aqueous Antibacterial 12
Ethanol Antibacterial 13
Methanol Antifungal 14
Aqueous Antiulcerant 19
Aqueous Antidiabetic 21
Methanol Anthelmintic 25
Methanol Antiarthritic 17
Methanol Antiulcerant 18
Aqueous Anthelmintic 18
Ethanol Antiarthritic 16
Ethanol Anticonvulsant 24
Ethanol CNS Depressant 15
Methanol Lung Cancer 16
Methanol Breast Cancer 17
Methanol Prostate Cancer 17
Ethanol Skin Cancer 17
Ethanol Lung Cancer 18
Ethanol Prostate Cancer 18
Ethanol Breast Cancer 18


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