Rhizophora apiculata

Family: Rhizophoraceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Brunei: bakauminyak, bakau; Indonesia: bakauminyak (general), bako (Javanese), babakoanlaut (Sundanese); Malaysia: bakauminyak, bakautandok, bakauakik; Papua New Guinea: abia (Gulf Province), bahkweh (Northern Province), pana (Central Province)

Local Availability

Cultivated as woody plant

Worldwide Availability

It is found in Australia (Queensland and the Northern Territory), Guam, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, the Maldives, Thailand, Vanuatu, and Vietn

Botanical Description 20

Evergreen tree, up to over 30 m tall and with trunk up to 50 cm in diameter, generally much smaller in exploited forests; bole 10-12 m; stem supported by numerous, lateral, much branched stilt roots;

Common Ethnobotanical Use 21

The wood of R. apiculata can be split easily and has a high energy value, making it in great demand as firewood and for making charcoal. In recent years it has been extensively harvested for production of wood chips in East Malaysia and Indonesia. R. apiculata is the preferred species in replanting programmes in most mangrove regions in South-East Asia. Poles are used for piling and construction purposes, and as fishing stakes. The timber is suitable for making furniture. The branched stilt roots weighted with stones serve as anchors. The bark is rich in tannin, used for tanning leather and to toughen and dye fishing lines, ropes and nets. The bark provides a medicine against dysentery.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
2-Furaldehyde8
LinaloolLeaf1, 2
Eugenol8
LupeolStem; Root4, 7
StigmasterolHeartwood6
Hexadecanoic acidRoot7
beta-sitosterolHeartwood; Root6, 7
BenzophenoneLeaf11, 12
InositolRoot7
PinitolRoot7
CampesterolHeartwood6
Oleanolic acidRoot7
Lignoceric acidHeartwood6
Octacosan-1-olHeartwood6
Vanillin8
4-Hydroxyacetophenone8
Syringaldehyde8
Pyrocatechol 8
(+)-CatechinBark9, 13
(-)-EpicatecholBark9
(-)-Epicatechin-3-O-gallateBark13
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallateBark9
EpicatechinBark13
Coumarin8
Hydroquinone8
DotriacontanolHeartwood6
Diethyl pthalateLeaf1, 2
Phenol8
TaraxerolLeaf5
2-Methoxy-4-methyl phenol8
TriacontanolHeartwood6
2,6-Dimethoxy Phenol8
3,4-Dimethoxy-Phenol8
4-methylphenol8
Guaiacol8
4-ethylphenol8
4-ethylguaiacol8
Acetovanillone8
4-allyl syringol8
Acetosyringone8
Terpinyl acetateLeaf1
n-Nonacosan-1-olHeartwood6
Dimethylacetamide8
HentriacontanolHeartwood6
4-Methoxy Phenol8
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol8
gamma-Butyrolactone8
gamma-Valerolactone8
3,7-Dimethyl-2-octen-1-olLeaf1
Ethylene oxideLeaf1
2-Ethyl-2-butenalLeaf1
DiazeneLeaf1
alpha-Isomethyl iononeLeaf1
AcetamideLeaf1
2-Methyl-pentanol-2Leaf1
AllyldimethylphenylsilaneLeaf1
alpha-Ionyl acetateLeaf1
2-MethoxynaphthaleneLeaf1, 2
OxyphenylonLeaf1
2,5-DiethylphenolLeaf1
o-AcetotoluideLeaf1
MintlactoneLeaf1
Trimethyl(pentafluorophenyl)silaneLeaf1
1,2-EpoxyhexobarbitalLeaf1
o-Kresol-glycidaetherLeaf1
BromobimaneLeaf1
1,3-CyclohexadieneLeaf1
N-1-Adamantyl-p-methylbenzalimineLeaf2
m-AcetotoluideLeaf2
4-Butylpyridine-1-oxideLeaf2
p-Amino diethylanilineLeaf2
ClivorineLeaf2
Cyclohexanone,4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)Leaf2
alpha-Ketostearic acidLeaf2
Cyclopropanecarboxylic acidLeaf2
1-Adamantyl-m-tolyloxyacetateLeaf2
Silane,triethylLeaf2
ThiazolidinedioneLeaf2
Acetamide,N-(4-methylphenyl)-Leaf2
Butanoic acid, pentyl esterWhole Plant3
7H-Pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepin-7-oneWhole Plant3
N-HydroxymethylacetamideWhole Plant3
4(2-Furyl)PyridineWhole Plant3
4-EthyloxazolidineWhole Plant3
1-Pyrazolidinecarboxamide, N-phenylWhole Plant3
1-Propanamine, N-nitro-N-propyl-Whole Plant3
1-Tetradecene-7,13-diyneWhole Plant3
Ethyl-3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylpentanoateWhole Plant3
Ethyl-N,N-dimethylcarbamateWhole Plant3
4-Butyl-1-Methyl MalateWhole Plant3
Ethyl propyl malateWhole Plant3
(5-Bromo-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)ketoneWhole Plant3
5-Bromo-2-thiophenecarboxaldehydeWhole Plant3
Ergosta-7,22-dien-3-beta-olStem4
Henicosanoic acidHeartwood6
Pentacosanoic acidHeartwood6
Heptacosanoic acidHeartwood6
Octacosanoic acidHeartwood6
Triacontanoic acidHeartwood6
Tritriacontanoic acidHeartwood6
Tetratriacontanoic acidHeartwood6
Hexatriacontanoic acidHeartwood6
beta-Sitosterol-beta-D-glucosideRoot7
1-Chloro-2-propanol8
(S)-(+)-2-Chloro-1-propanol8
1,2-Propanediol8
2-(2-Hydroxypropoxy)-1-propanol8
3-Methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one8
2,3-Dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one8
3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one8
2-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one8
2-Ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione8
2,4-Dimethyl-3-heptanone8
2,5-Dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone8
5-Methyl-2-(5H)-furanone8
3-Methyl-2-(5H)-furanone8
Dihydro-4,4-dimethyl-2,3-furandione8
4-Methyl-5H-furan-2-one8
3-Hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-4H-pyran-4-one8
2-Methylphenol8
2-Hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde8
4-Hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone8
3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde8
3-Methoxycatechol8
Trimethoxybenzene8
1,2,4-Trimethoxybenzene8
3,4,5-Trimethoxytoluene8
1-Methyl-2-pyrolidinone8
1,4:3,6-Dianhydro-alpha-D-glucopyranose8
Diphenylacetaldehyde8
EpigallocatechinBark9, 13
(-)-GallocatechinBark9
(-)-Catechin gallateBark9
(-)-Gallocatechin gallateBark9
2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanolLeaf; Flower11, 12
Hexadecamethyl cyclooctasiloxaneLeaf; Flower11, 12
3,4-DiethylphenolLeaf11, 12
Kaur-16-eneLeaf11, 12
Decamethyl cyclopentasiloxaneFlower12
1,2,3,4-Tetramethoxy-5-(2 propenyl)benzeneFlower12
Butyl cyclohexyl ester-1,2- Benzenedicarboxylic acidFlower12
Octadecamethyl cyclononasiloxaneStem12
Eicosamethyl cyclodecasiloxaneStem12
KaureneStem12
Methyl-ent-16-beta,17-dihydroxy-9(11)-kauren-19-oateStem4
13,16alpha,17-Trihydroxy-ent-9(11)-kauren-19-oic acidStem4
Taraxeryl cis-p-hydroxycinnamateLeaf5
ApiculolRoot10
15(S)-Isopimar-7-en-1-oxo-15,16-diolStem4
Methyl-ent-12,17-epoxy-16-beta-hydroxy-9(11)-kauren-19-oateStem4
Methyl-ent-kaur-9(11)-ent-13,17-expoxy-16-hydroxy-19-oateStem4

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Bark
Ethyl Acetate Antiulcerant 19
Leaf
Ethyl Acetate Antibacterial 16
Methanol Anthelmintic 18
Root
Ethanol Antidiabetic 17
Whole Plant
Methanol B16F10 Melanoma 3,14
Methanol Chemoprotective Activity 15
Methanol Immunostimulant 15
Methanol Lung Cancer 14

References

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