Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze.

Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Apang, Gopali, and Gobura (Bengali), Dharboaring-shing (Chakma); Lan Da Jang, Tha Si (Marma)

Local Availability

More or less throughout the country in fallow lands.

Worldwide Availability

Eastern Asia and naturalized on some Pacific islands

Botanical Description 18

A suffruticose, hirsute, pubescent or tomentose shrubby annual, Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze has 1-1.5 m high. Leaves aromatic, 2.5-7.5 cm long, ovate, acute, crenate-serrate, soft pubescent. Flowers

Common Ethnobotanical Use 19

Leaves of Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze. are chewed for toothache and applied for snake bites. Pounded root boiled with milk is taken to cure mouth abscess. Leaf juice is provided for fever and whooping cough of children. The plant has carminative, astringent and tonic properties; beneficial for uterine infection by the tribal in Khagrachari. Decoction of the plant is used in animal dysentery. Crushed leaves of the plant are useful to cure inflammation of neck of the bullock caused by cart pulling. The essential oil from leaves is beneficial in uterine affection. Root is used as antiallergic; cures sores and ulcers of the mouth. Leaf extract used for urinary complaints in Nepal. In Ayurveda, used for uterine affections.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
BenzaldehydeLeaf2
1,8-CineoleFlower11
LinaloolAerial6
alpha-TerpineolFlower11
EugenolAerial6
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf3
DocosaneLeaf3
TetracosaneLeaf3
CamphorAerial6
Methyl salicylateLeaf3
Hexyl butanoateLeaf3
GeraniolAerial6
Linalool acetateAerial6
ThymolAerial6
Caryophyllene oxideLeaf; Aerial3, 6
n-HexadecaneLeaf3
CubenolLeaf3
MethylparabenWhole Plant8
p-Hydroxybenzoic acidWhole Plant8
Methyl gallateWhole Plant5, 12
Protocatechuic acidWhole Plant5, 12
beta-PineneAerial; Flower6, 11
alpha-PineneAerial; Flower6, 11
NerolAerial; Flower6, 11
Bornyl formateAerial6
CampheneAerial; Flower6, 11
beta-PhellandreneLeaf3
p-CymeneLeaf; Flower3, 11
Sabinene hydrateAerial6
GlobulolAerial6
ApigeninWhole Plant; Aerial5, 4, 8, 12
HeptacosaneLeaf2
LimoneneFlower11
MyrtenolAerial6
(5e,9e)-Farnesyl acetoneLeaf; Aerial2, 6
alpha-ThujoneAerial6
ActeosideWhole Plant5
IsoacteosideWhole Plant12
BorneolAerial; Flower6, 11
GeranialAerial; Flower6, 11
(Z)-beta-DamascenoneLeaf3
alpha-IononeLeaf3
Nerolidyl acetateAerial6
ViridiflorolLeaf3
CaryophylleneAerial; Flower6, 11
(+)-NootkatoneLeaf2
Phytol acetateLeaf2
AnisoleLeaf; Aerial2, 6
(E)-2-octen-1-olLeaf3
Hexyl acetateLeaf2
Caryophyllene alcoholLeaf3
Dihydro-beta-iononeLeaf3
TheaspiraneLeaf3
Maslinic acidWhole Plant8
Z-3-octen-1-olLeaf3
VitispiraneLeaf3
Nonyl acetateAerial6
TritriacontaneLeaf2
PedalitinWhole Plant5, 12
Apigenin-7-O-glucuronideWhole Plant12
Campneoside IIWhole Plant12
AzuleneFlower11
OvatodiolideLeaf; Whole Plant1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12
Anisomelic acidWhole Plant9, 10
Betonyoside AWhole Plant5, 12
TerniflorinWhole Plant5, 8
Trimethyl benzaldehydeLeaf2
PygmaeinLeaf2
CyclopentadecanolideLeaf2
Methyl communateLeaf2
Dehydro-ar-ioneneLeaf3
alpha-Bisabolol oxide-BLeaf3
4,5-EpoxovatodiolideWhole Plant8
Anisofolin AWhole Plant8
Anisofolin BWhole Plant8
Prunin-6''-p-coumarateWhole Plant8
HederageninWhole Plant8
Arjunolic acidWhole Plant8
AnisomelinAerial4
Methyl ether ThymolAerial6
2-IsopropylbenzaldehydeAerial6
EpiglobulolAerial6
Trifluoroacetyl-isomentholAerial6
Apigenin 7-O-beta-D-(2'',6''-di-O-p-coumaroyl)glucosideAerial7
Apigenin 7-O-beta-D-(4'',6''-di-O-p-coumaroyl)glucosideAerial7
p-Hydroxycinnamic methyl esterWhole Plant8
3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic methyl esterWhole Plant8
4-Methylene-5beta-hydroxyovatodiolideWhole Plant8
4-Methylene-5beta-hydroperoxyovatodiolideWhole Plant8
4-Methylene-5-oxovatodiolideWhole Plant8
4alpha-Hydroxy-5-enovatodiolideWhole Plant8
4alpha-Hydroperoxy-5-enovatodiolideWhole Plant8
Apigenin 7-O-beta-D-(6''-cis-p-coumaroyl) glucosideWhole Plant8, 12
5-Hydroxy,6,7,3',4'-tetra-methoxy flavoneAerial4
cis-p-Menth-2,8-dien-1-olAerial6
3-O-trans-p-coumaroylmaslinic acidWhole Plant8
4,7-Oxycycloanisomelic acidWhole Plant9, 10
Scutellarein 7-O-D-glucuronide methyl esterWhole Plant5
CalceolariosideWhole Plant5, 12
Cistanoside FWhole Plant12
Scutellarein 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide methyl esterWhole Plant5, 12

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Stem; Leaf
Water Antiinflammatory 15
Aqueous Analgesic 17
Whole Plant
Aqueous Breast Cancer 14
Methanol Antibacterial 16
Whole Plant; Leaf; Flower; Stem
Aqueous; Methanol Breast Cancer 13
Aqueous; Methanol Pancreatic Cancer 13
Aqueous; Methanol Colon Cancer 13
Aqueous; Methanol Liver Cancer 13

References

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  • 2 Basappa, G., Kumar, V., Sarojini, B., Poornima, D., Gajula, H., Sannabommaji, T.K. and Rajashekar, J. (2015) Chemical composition, biological properties of Anisomeles indica Kuntze essential oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 77, 89-96.
  • 3 Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., Kaur, M., Kohli, R.K. and Singh, S. (2012) Chemical characterization and phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from leaves of Anisomeles indica (Lamiaceae). Biochemical systematics and ecology, 41, 104-109.
  • 4 Rao, L.J.M., Kumari, G.K. and Rao, N.P. (1983) 6-Methoxy flavones from Anisomeles ovata (syn. Anisomeles indica). Journal of Natural Products, 46, 595-595.
  • 5 Rao, Y.K., Fang, S.-H., Hsieh, S.-C., Yeh, T.-H. and Tzeng, Y.-M. (2009) The constituents of Anisomeles indica and their anti-inflammatory activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 121, 292-296.
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  • 9 Arisawa, M., Nimura, M., Ikeda, A., Hayashi, T., Morita, N., Momose, Y., Takeda, R. and Nakanishi, S.J.P.m. (1986) Biologically Active Macrocyclic Diterpenoids from Chinese Drug “Fáng Féng Cáo” I. Isolation and Structure1. 52, 38-41.
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  • 14 Liao, Y.-F., Rao, Y.K. and Tzeng, Y.-M. (2012) Aqueous extract of Anisomeles indica and its purified compound exerts anti-metastatic activity through inhibition of NF-κB/AP-1-dependent MMP-9 activation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Food and chemical toxicology, 50, 2930-2936.
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