Sesamum indicum L.

Family: Pedaliaceae

Synonyms

Sesamum orientale L

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Til(Bengali), Kala Til(Bengali), Gaishya(Tanchangya), Sesame(English), Gingelly(English)

Local Availability

Cultivated in many districts including Chittagong Hill Tracts

Worldwide Availability

Botanical Description 26

An erect annual Pubescent herb up to 1m high. Leaves 7.5-12.5cm long, simple and of various shape from ovate to linear. Flowers purple or whitish with purple or yellow marks, drooping, 2.5-3.2cm long,

Common Ethnobotanical Use 27

Seeds are tonic, laxative, emollient, demulcent, diuretic, nourishing, galactagogue, emmenagogue and aphrodisiac; removes constipation, thus helpful in piles. Powdered seeds are used in applied to burns and scald. Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical products; believed to promote the growth of hair. Infusion of the leaves is much used as a demulcent, also given as a remedy for disease of the respiratory tract. Every part of the plant is used as a diuretic in Cambodia. In Madagascar, every part of the plant is considered emollient and laxative.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
MethylpyrazineSeed8
2,5-DimethylpyrazineSeed8
2,6-DimethylpyrazineSeed8
EthylpyrazineSeed8
BenzaldehydeSeed8
5-Methyl-2-furaldehydeSeed8
2-Ethyl-3-methylpyrazineSeed8
2,5-Dimethyl-3-ethylpyrazineSeed8
2-(2'-furyl)PyrazineSeed8
2,3-DimethylpyrazineSeed8
Hexadecanoic acidSeed1, 2, 10
beta-sitosterol15
Daucosterol15
Linoleic acidSeed1, 2, 10
Octadecanoic acidSeed1, 2, 10
2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazineSeed8
2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazineSeed8
2,3,5-trimethylpyrazineSeed8
2,3-dimethyl-5-ethylpyrazineSeed8
2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazineSeed8
5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoxalineSeed8
Lignoceric acidSeed1, 2, 10
Linolenic acidSeed1, 2, 10
Oleic acidSeed1, 2, 10
Arachidic AcidSeed2
(+)-SesaminPerisperm; Seed9, 11
ApigeninFlower14
PhenolSeed8
Behenic acidSeed10
ActeosideWhole Plant12
GuaiacolSeed8
Caproic acidSeed1, 2, 10
Dulcitol15
4-Methoxy PhenolSeed8
3-MethoxyphenolSeed8
MatairesinolPerisperm; Seed9, 11
PedalitinFlower14
Cistanoside FWhole Plant12
HydroxysesamoneRoot3
2,3-EpoxysesamoneRoot3
ChlorosesamoneRoot4, 3
Anthrasesamone ARoot5
Anthrasesamone BRoot5
Anthrasesamone CRoot5
2-(4-Methylpent-3-enyl)anthraquinoneRoot5, 7
(E)-2-(4-Methylpenta-1,3-dienyl)anthraquinoneRoot5
Anthrasesamone DRoot6
Anthrasesamone ERoot6
2-Geranyl-1,4-naphthoquinoneRoot7
Anthrasesamone FRoot; Seed7, 13
2-Ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazineSeed8
AcetylpyrazineSeed8
5-Methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopentapyrazineSeed8
6,7-Dihydro-5H-cyclopentapyrazineSeed8
6-Acetyl-2-methylpyrazineSeed8
2-Methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopentapyrazineSeed8
2(2’Furyl)-3-methylpyrazineSeed8
MethoxymethylphenolSeed8
VinylguaiacolSeed8
2-Phenyl-2-butenalSeed8
4-Methyl-2-phenyl-2-pentenalSeed8
5-Methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenalSeed8
2-Phenyl-2-pentenalSeed8
2-Phenyl-2-hexenalSeed8
(+)-SaminolPerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-SesaminolPerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-PiperitolPerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-EpisesaminonePerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-AcuminatinPerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-PinoresinolPerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-LariciresinolPerisperm; Seed9, 11
Decaffeoyl-acteosideWhole Plant12
Campneoside IWhole Plant12
Campneoside IIWhole Plant12
Latifonin15
Soya-cerebroside II15
(-)-SesamolactolPerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-Pinoresinol glucosidePerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-Episesaminone-9-O-beta-D-sophorosidePerisperm; Seed9, 11
(+)-Episesaminol-6-catecholPerisperm; Seed9, 11

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Leaf
Ethanol; Methanol; Aqueous  Antibacterial 20
Hexane Antiulcerant 24
Seed
N/A Leukemia 16
Hot Water; Ethanol Antidiabetic 17,18
Ethanol Hepatoprotective 19
N/A Wound Healing 21
N/A Antihyperlipidemic 22
N/A Antiinflammatory 23
N/A Antinociceptive 23
N/A Antiulcerant 25

References

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  • 2 Nzikou, J., Matos, L., Bouanga-Kalou, G., Ndangui, C., Pambou-Tobi, N., Kimbonguila, A., Silou, T., Linder, M. and Desobry, S. (2009) Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1, 6-11.
  • 3 Hasan, A.F., Furumoto, T., Begum, S. and Fukui, H. (2001) Hydroxysesamone and 2, 3-epoxysesamone from roots of Sesamum indicum. Phytochemistry, 58, 1225-1228.
  • 4 BEGUM, S., FURUMOTO, T. and FUKUI, H. (2000) A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone from roots of Sesamum indicum. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 64, 873-874.
  • 5 Furumoto, T., Iwata, M., Hasan, A.F. and Fukui, H. (2003) Anthrasesamones from roots of Sesamum indicum. Phytochemistry, 64, 863-866.
  • 6 Furumoto, T., Takeuchi, A. and Fukui, H. (2006) Anthrasesamones D and E from Sesamum indicum roots. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 70, 1784-1785.
  • 7 Furumoto, T. and Hoshikuma, A. (2011) Biosynthetic origin of 2-geranyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone and its related anthraquinone in a Sesamum indicum hairy root culture. Phytochemistry, 72, 871-874.
  • 8 Manley, C., Vallon, P. and Erickson, R. (1974) Some aroma components of roasted sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.). Journal of Food Science, 39, 73-76.
  • 9 Grougnet, R., Magiatis, P., Mitaku, S., Terzis, A., Tillequin, F. and Skaltsounis, A.-L. (2006) New lignans from the perisperm of Sesamum indicum. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54, 7570-7574.
  • 10 Bahkali, A., Hussain, M. and Basahy, A. (1998) Protein and oil composition of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum, L.) grown in the Gizan area of Saudi Arabia. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 49, 409-414.
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  • 17 Takeuchi, H., Mooi, L.Y., Inagaki, Y. and He, P. (2001) Hypoglycemic effect of a hot-water extract from defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed on the blood glucose level in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 65, 2318-2321.
  • 18 Wikul, A., Damsud, T., Kataoka, K. and Phuwapraisirisan, P. (2012) (+)-Pinoresinol is a putative hypoglycemic agent in defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds though inhibiting α-glucosidase. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 22, 5215-5217.
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