Avicennia marina

Family: Acanthaceae


Avicennia alba Blume, Avicennia intermedia Griff., Avicennia mindanaensis Elmer, Avicennia sphaerocarpa Stapf ex Ridl.,Avicennia spicata Kuntze, Sceura marina Forssk., Avicennia officinalis Auct., Avicennia tomentosa arabica Walp.

Family Synonyms

Common Names

White mangrove (English), witseebasboom (Africa), mangal(Xironga), towozi (Xironga), txomahati (Xironga), isikhungathi (isiXhosa, isiZulu), grey mangrove (English), olive mangrove (English).

Local Availability

Mangrove Forest in Bangladesh

Worldwide Availability

Atlantic southeast, Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central

Botanical Description 32

Avicennia marina is an evergreen small to medium-sized tree,usually growing 1 - 10 metres tall but sometimes, up to 25 metres tall, main trunk straight, up to 76 cm in diameter, with much branched, ro

Common Ethnobotanical Use 33

Leaf and bark decoctions are used as an anodyne and are applied externally against scabies.The resin from the bark is used to treat snake bites and to remove the placenta after childbirth. In Madagascar a leaf decoction has been used as antidote after eating poisoned fish. The wood ash has been used to treat skin complaints. The tree possesses a bitter aromatic juice, used as an abortive in tropical Africa and Asia. Root and bark are used as aphrodisiac,the aqueous extract of the seed for sores. Unripe fruits are poulticed onto wounds and leaves onto skin ailments.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
LupeolLeaf; Aerial Root; Aerial3, 6, 7, 14
StigmasterolLeaf; Aerial Root6, 7, 8
beta-sitosterolLeaf3, 8, 6
CampesterolLeaf6, 8
Chrysoeriol 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside3
(+)-LyoniresinolTwig3, 2
KaempferolAerial3, 14
Betulinic acidAerial3, 14
CholesterolLeaf6, 8
delta5-AvenasterolLeaf6, 8
(+)-Lirioresinol A1
(+)-Lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranosideTwig1, 2, 3
(-)-Lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside1
Salsaside A1
Salsaside CWhole Plant16
ActeosideLeaf; Aerial1, 3, 4, 14
IsoacteosideLeaf; Aerial1, 4, 14
Ethyl ferulate1
Avicennone D1
Avicennone E1
Stenocarpoquinone BTwig1, 3, 5
Avicennone ATwig3, 5
Avicennone BTwig3, 5
Avicennone CTwig3, 5
Avicennone FTwig3, 5
Avicennone GTwig3, 5
Avicequinone ATwig3, 5
Avicequinone CTwig; Aerial3, 5, 14
Avicenol ATwig3, 5
Avicenol CTwig3, 5
BetulinLeaf; Aerial3, 14
2-[2'-(2'-hydroxy) propyl]-naphtho[1,2-beta] furan-4,5-dione3
2'-cinnamoyl mussaenosidic acidLeaf3, 12
(7'S,8'R)-4,4',9'-trihydroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-7,8-dehydro-9-al-2,7'-cycloliganTwig3, 2
Isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinosideAerial3, 9
Betulic acidBark17
TaraxerolAerial Root; Bark7, 17
Avicequinone BTwig3, 5
5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavoneAerial3, 14
Geniposidic acidAerial; Whole Plant3, 9, 15
DerhamnosylverbascosideLeaf3, 4
p-methoxy cinnamic acid3
3(R)-Hydroxy-5-phenyl-4(E)-pentanoic acidLeaf3, 10
SyringaresinolAerial3, 14
Indolyl-3-carboxylic acidAerial3, 14
Erythro-guaiacylglycerol-beta-ferulic acid ether1
Marinnone A1
Marinnone B1
Threo-guaiacylglycerol-beta-ferulic acid ether1
6Halpha-11,12,16-trihydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial 11,6-hemiacetalTwig2, 3
6Hbeta-11,12,16-trihydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial 11,6-hemiacetalTwig2, 3
6,11,12,16-Tetrahydroxy-5,8,11,13-abitetetraen-7-oneTwig2, 3
10-O-(5-phenyl-2,4-pentadienoyl)-geniposideLeaf3, 12
7-O-(5-phenyl-2,4-pentadienoyl)-8-epiloganinLeaf3, 12
11-hydroxy-8,11,13-abietatriene 12-O-beta-xylopyranosideTwig2
Luteolin 7-O-methylether3
Luteolin 7-O-methylether 3'-O-beta-D-glucosideAerial3, 9
10-O-[(E)-cinnamoyl]-geniposidic acidAerial; Whole Plant3, 9, 15
10-O-[(E)-p-cinnamoyl]-geniposidic acidAerial; Whole Plant3, 9, 15
10-O-[(E)-caffeoyl]-geniposidic acidAerial; Whole Plant3, 9, 15
2'-O-[(E)-cinnamoyl]mussaenosidic acidAerial; Leaf; Whole Plant3, 9, 10, 15
2'-O-[(2E,4E)-5-phenylpenta-2,4-dienoyl]mussaenosidic acidAerial3, 13
2'-O-(4-mehtoxycinnamoyl)mussaenosidic acidAerial3, 13
2'-O-coumaroylmussaenosidic acidAerial3, 13
Marinoid ALeaf3, 10
Marinoid BLeaf3, 10
Marinoid CLeaf3, 10
Marinoid DLeaf3, 10
Marinoid ELeaf3, 10
Eleutheroside E21
Dihydroxymethyl-bis (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) tetra hydrofuran-9-O-beta-glucopyranoside1
Leucoseceptoside A1
Jionoside C1
Ilicifolioside A1

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Aqueous Alcohol Antidiabetic 28
Methanol Breast Cancer 19
Methanol Cervical Cancer 30
Ethanol Breast Cancer 31
Ethanol Liver Cancer 31
Ethanol; Aqueous Anticancer 20
Aqueous; Ethanol Antifungal 21
Ethanol; Methanol Antifungal 21
Glycerin Antibacterial 22
Glycerin Antiviral 24
Methanol Antiviral 25
Glycerin Antiviral 26
Hydroalcohol Antiarthritic 27
Methanol Anthelmintic 29


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