Azadirachta indica A. juss.

Family: Meliaceae

Synonyms

Melia azadirachta L.

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Nim tree (Bengali), Neem tree (English), Indian lilac (English), Margosa tree (English),Cortex nargosae (Latin)

Local Availability

Planted all over Bangladesh.

Worldwide Availability

India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Maldive

Botanical Description 92

Azadirachta indica is a fast-growing medium-sized tree that can reach a height of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft), and rarely 35–40 metres (115–131 ft),with wide spreading branches forming an oval crown.Leave

Common Ethnobotanical Use 93

Azadirachta indica commonly known as neem is a very beneficial plant that is used to cure many diseases.Every part such as neem seed, leaves, bark, roots, twigs can be used for medicinal purposes.Traditionally, slender neem twigs (called datun) are first chewed as a toothbrush and then split as a tongue cleaner.The bark is bitter, tonic, refrigerant, anthelmintic, maturant, astringent; relieves fatigue, fever, thirst, cough and bad taste in the mouth; used for malaria; useful in some slight cases of intermittent fever and general debility, amenorrhoea; cures ulcers and inflammations.Tree and root barks have been used for malaria, jaundice, and for intestinal parasitism. Leaves and flowers are edible.Fresh leaf-tea used for malaria; poultice of leaves for swollen glands, bruises and sprains. Edible pulp of the fruit used for hemorrhoids, intestinal worms, wounds, diabetes, and leprosy.Flower used for controlling phlegm and treatment of intestinal worms.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
OctadecaneFruit coat63
NonadecaneFruit coat63
EicosaneFruit coat63
HeneicosaneFruit coat63
DocosaneFruit coat63
TricosaneFruit coat63
TetracosaneFruit coat63
PentacosaneFruit coat63
StigmasterolLeaf28
Hexadecanoic acidSeed54
beta-sitosterolLeaf; Seed; Fruit28, 54, 68
Linoleic acidSeed54
Octadecanoic acidSeed54
Ethyl hexadecanoateFruit coat63
n-PentadecaneFruit coat63
n-HexadecaneFruit coat63
n-HeptadecaneFruit coat63
CampesterolSeed54
HexacosaneFruit coat63
NonacosaneFruit coat63
OctacosaneFruit coat63
Linolenic acidSeed54
Oleic acidSeed54
Arachidic AcidSeed54
alpha-TocopherolSeed54
Benzene,1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-(1-propenyl)-,(Z)-Fruit coat63
HentriacontaneFruit coat63
HeptacosaneFruit coat63
Behenic acidSeed54
delta5-AvenasterolSeed54
delta7-StigmasterolSeed54
delta7-AvenasterolSeed54
Palmitoleic acidSeed54
22,23-DihydronimocinolLeaf1
Desfurano-6alpha-hydroxyazadiradioneLeaf1
AzadironolideFruit coat2
IsoazadironolideFruit coat2
AzadiradionolideFruit coat; Seed2, 3, 64, 65
DesacetylnimbinolideTwig4, 8, 20
DesacetylnimbinSeed; Twig3, 4, 16
5,7,4'-Trihydroxy-8-prenylflavanoneFlower7
5,4'-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-8-prenylflavanoneFlower7
5,7,4'-Trihydroxy-3',8-diprenylflavanoneFlower7
5,7,4'-Trihydroxy-3',5'-diprenylflavanoneFlower7
AzadiradioneSeed3, 64, 65, 20, 30
7-BenzoylnimbocinolSeed3, 65
17-HydroxyazadiradioneSeed; Fruit3, 64, 65, 8, 16, 19, 68
EpoxyazadiradioneSeed; Fruit3, 65, 8, 20, 16, 19, 68
7-Deacetyl-7-benzoylepoxyazadiradioneSeed; Fruit3, 65, 56, 68
17-EpiazadiradioneSeed3, 64, 65
17-Epi-17-hydroxyazadiradioneSeed3, 64, 65
DesfuranoazadiradioneSeed; Fruit coat3, 65, 26
1,3-diacetylvilasininSeed; Leaf3, 64, 18
GeduninSeed; Fruit3, 65, 8, 16, 19, 68
7-DeacetylgeduninSeed3, 65
7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgeduninSeed3, 65
NimbinSeed3, 65, 8, 16, 19
28-deoxonimbolideSeed; Leaf3, 64, 14
Ohchinin acetateSeed3, 64
2',3'-DihydrosalanninSeed3
MeliantriolSeed8, 20
NimbocinoneLeaf8, 20, 28
NimolinoneFruit8, 20
AzadirachtolLeaf8, 20, 18
NimbolideLeaf8, 14, 25
NimbidininSeed8
SalanninSeed3, 64, 8, 20
AzadironeSeed; Fruit8, 20, 16, 22, 68
NimbocinolSeed3, 64, 8
MeldeninSeed8, 20, 66
Isomeldenin8
Meldenin diol8, 20
Nimbolin AWood8
VilasininLeaf8, 67
NimolicinolSeed3, 64, 65, 8, 20, 19
AzadirachtaninLeaf8
NimocinolideLeaf8, 68
IsonimocinolideLeaf8, 68
Nimbocinolide8
Isonimbocinolide8
3-DeacetylsalanninSeed; Leaf64, 8, 3, 23
Salannol8
Salannol acetate8
2',3'-DehydrosalannolSeed; Leaf64, 8, 23
Nimbolin BWood8
22,23-Dihydro-23beta-methoxyazadirachtin8
3-Tigloylazadirachtol8
SalannolideSeed8, 57
IsoazadirolideLeaf8
MargosinolideLeaf8
IsomargosinolideTwig8
Nimbinene8
6-Deacetylnimbinene8
Nimbandiol8, 20
6-O-Acetylnimbandiol8
KulactoneFruit coat20, 9
nimolininRoot Bark20, 10
NimbosoneStem Bark20, 11
Methyl nimbiolStem Bark20, 11
SugiolStem Bark20, 11
NimbosodioneStem Bark12
Mahmoodin16
Naheedin16
DeacetylsalanninLeaf20, 18
NimonolLeaf18, 22, 26, 42
24,25,26,27-Tetranor-apotirucall-6alpha-hydroxy-7alpha-acetoxy-1,14-dien-3-one-21,24-anhydrideLeaf18
1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-17beta-hydroxyazadiradioneSeed19
1alpha,2alpha-epoxynimolicinolSeed19
7-DeacetylnimolicinolSeed19
NimbidiolRoot Bark20, 31
AzadirolFruit20
Azadirachtin20
Azadirachtin ASeed21
Azadirachtin BSeed3, 65, 21
Azadirachtin DSeed21
Azadirachtin FSeed21
NimbioneStem Bark24
NimbinoneStem Bark24
NimbaflavoneLeaf27
NimbiononeBark29
NimbionolBark29
NimbanalSeed32
24-MethylenelophenolHeartwood34
LimocinolFruit Coat35
LimocinoneFruit Coat35
Limocin AFruit Coat35
Limocin BFruit Coat35
LimocininFruit Coat35
8-prenyl-5,7-dihydroxy-3’-(3-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyl)-4’-methoxyflavanoneShoot; Leaf38
11-Hydroxyazadirachtin BSeed39
1,3-Diacetyl-7-tigloyl-12-hydroxyvilasininSeed39
23-Desmethyllimocin-BSeed39
13,14-Desepoxyazadirachtin-ASeed kernel40
11-epi-azadirachtin DSeed44
NimbothalinLeaf45
n-TridecylbenzeneLeaf45
MeliacinolLeaf46
OdoratoneSeed kernel48
2beta,3beta,4beta-Trihydroxypregnan-16-oneSeed kernel48
MelianolLeaf49
ZafaralLeaf50
MeliacinanhydrideLeaf50
Gadoleic acidSeed54
beta-TocopherolSeed54
gamma-TocopherolSeed54
delta-TocopherolSeed54
SalimuzzalinFruit coat60
Azadirolic acidFruit coat60
AzadiradionolFruit coat60
AzadironolFruit coat60
2,6-Bis-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenolFruit coat63
3,4-Dihydro-4,4,5,8-tetramethylcoumarinFruit coat63
3,4-Dihydro-4,4,7,8-tetramethylcoumarin-6-olFruit coat63
alpha-HexylcinnamaldehydeFruit coat63
Methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoateFruit coat63
GaloxolideFruit coat63
Methyl 14-methyl-pentadecanoateFruit coat63
Ethyl oleateFruit coat63
DihydromyrcenolFruit coat63
NimosoneStem Bark20, 11
Methyl nimbiononeStem Bark20, 11
desacetylisonimbinolideTwig4, 20
NimocinFruit8, 22, 68
AzadirachnolFruit8, 20
Vepinin8
1-Tigolyl-3-acetylvilasinin8
Nimolicinoic acidFruit8, 69
Diacetyl azadirolFruit coat9
Triacetyl azadirolFruit coat9
NimbilinRoot Bark10
NimbisonolStem bark12
DemethylnimbionolStem bark12
IsonimolicinolideSeed; Fruit8, 56, 69
1alpha-methoxy-1,2-dihydro-epoxyazadiradioneSeed8, 56
1beta,2beta-diepoxyazadiradioneSeed8, 56
7-AcetylneotrichilenoneSeed8, 56
DehydronimonolLeaf18
24,25,26,27-Tetranor-apotirucall-6alpha-hydroxy-7alpha-acetoxy-14-en-3-one-21,24-anhydrideLeaf18
24,25,26,27-tetranor-apotirucall-6alpha,22-dihydroxy-7alpha-acetoxy-1,14,20(21)-trien-3-one-21,23-olideLeaf18
24,25,26,27-Tetranor-apotirucall-6alpha-hydroxy-7alpha-acetoxy-14-en-3-one-21,23-olideLeaf18
24,25,26,27-Tetranorapotirucall-6alpha,22-dihydroxy-7alpha-acetoxy-14,20(21)-dien-3-one-21,23-olideLeaf18
1-TigloylazadirachtolLeaf18
17-Desfuran-17-(22-hydroxybut-20(21)-ene-21,23-gamma-lactone)-nimbandiolLeaf18
17-Desfuran-17-(21-hydroxy-20(22)-ene-21,23-gamma-lactone)nimbandiolLeaf18
2-O-(6-O-transsinapoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosideLeaf18
NimbonoloneStem Bark20, 33
4alpha, 6alpha-Dihydroxy-A-homoazadiradione20
Azadiradione-7-benzoate20
Vilasinin triacetate20
Azadirachtin ESeed21
Azadirachtin GSeed21
6alpha-O-Acetyl-7-deacetylnimocinolLeaf22, 46
7-Deacetyl-17beta-hydroxyazadiradioneSeed30
NimbononeStem Bark33
7alpha-Acetoxy- 4,4,8-trimethyl-5alpha-(13alpha-Me)-17-oxa-androsta-1,14-dien-3,16-dioneFruit Coat26
7alpha-Acetoxy- 4,4,8-trimethyl-5alpha-17-oxa-androsta-1,14-dien-3,16-dioneFruit Coat26
1-Tigloyl-3-acetyl-11-hydroxy-4beta-methylmeliacarpinSeed37
1-Tigloyl-3-AcetylazadirachtininSeed39
11-Epi-azadirachtin HSeed41
AzadirachtolideLeaf43
DeoxyazadirachtolideLeaf43
14,15-beta-EpoxynimonolLeaf47
1alpha,7alpha-diacetoxyapotirucall-14-ene-3alpha,21,22,24,25-pentaolSeed kernel48
Desfurano-desacetylnimbin-17-oneLeaf49
MeliatetraoneLeaf49
Indicalilacol AFruit55
Indicalilacol BFruit55
Indicalilacol CFruit55
Indicalilacol DFruit55

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Bark
Juice Analgesic 86
Flower
Methanol Gastric Cancer 91
Methanol Leukemia 91
Leaf
Ethanol Skin Cancer 72
Methanol Leukemia 88
Ethanol Prostate Cancer 89
Ethanol Breast Cancer 90
Ethanol Cervical Cancer 90
Ethanol Antibacterial 73
Ethanol; Aqueous; Chloroform; Petroleum Ether Antibacterial 74
Methanol Antibacterial 75
Methanol Antiviral 77
Aqueous Antiviral 78
Aqueous Antiulcerant 79
Ethanol Antidiabetic 81
N/A Antidiabetic 82
Acetone Antidiabetic 83
Aqueous Cardioprotective 87
Leaf; Seed
Aqueous; Ethanol Antifungal 71
Seed
Aqueous; Methanol Anthelmintic 84
Aqueous; Ethanol Anthelmintic 85
Seed; Fruit; Leaf; Bark; Root
Water; Methanol; Ethanol; Chloroform Antifungal 70
Stem Bark
Ethanol; Acetone Antibacterial 76
Ethanol Antiulcerant 80

References

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