Azadirachta indica A. juss.

Family: Meliaceae


Melia azadirachta L.

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Nim tree (Bengali), Neem tree (English), Indian lilac (English), Margosa tree (English),Cortex nargosae (Latin)

Local Availability

Planted all over Bangladesh.

Worldwide Availability

India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Maldive

Botanical Description 92

Azadirachta indica is a fast-growing medium-sized tree that can reach a height of 15–20 metres (49–66 ft), and rarely 35–40 metres (115–131 ft),with wide spreading branches forming an oval crown.Leave

Common Ethnobotanical Use 93

Azadirachta indica commonly known as neem is a very beneficial plant that is used to cure many diseases.Every part such as neem seed, leaves, bark, roots, twigs can be used for medicinal purposes.Traditionally, slender neem twigs (called datun) are first chewed as a toothbrush and then split as a tongue cleaner.The bark is bitter, tonic, refrigerant, anthelmintic, maturant, astringent; relieves fatigue, fever, thirst, cough and bad taste in the mouth; used for malaria; useful in some slight cases of intermittent fever and general debility, amenorrhoea; cures ulcers and inflammations.Tree and root barks have been used for malaria, jaundice, and for intestinal parasitism. Leaves and flowers are edible.Fresh leaf-tea used for malaria; poultice of leaves for swollen glands, bruises and sprains. Edible pulp of the fruit used for hemorrhoids, intestinal worms, wounds, diabetes, and leprosy.Flower used for controlling phlegm and treatment of intestinal worms.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
OctadecaneFruit coat63
NonadecaneFruit coat63
EicosaneFruit coat63
HeneicosaneFruit coat63
DocosaneFruit coat63
TricosaneFruit coat63
TetracosaneFruit coat63
PentacosaneFruit coat63
Hexadecanoic acidSeed54
beta-sitosterolLeaf; Seed; Fruit28, 54, 68
Linoleic acidSeed54
Octadecanoic acidSeed54
Ethyl hexadecanoateFruit coat63
n-PentadecaneFruit coat63
n-HexadecaneFruit coat63
n-HeptadecaneFruit coat63
HexacosaneFruit coat63
NonacosaneFruit coat63
OctacosaneFruit coat63
Linolenic acidSeed54
Oleic acidSeed54
Arachidic AcidSeed54
Benzene,1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-(1-propenyl)-,(Z)-Fruit coat63
HentriacontaneFruit coat63
HeptacosaneFruit coat63
Behenic acidSeed54
Palmitoleic acidSeed54
AzadironolideFruit coat2
IsoazadironolideFruit coat2
AzadiradionolideFruit coat; Seed2, 3, 64, 65
DesacetylnimbinolideTwig4, 8, 20
DesacetylnimbinSeed; Twig3, 4, 16
AzadiradioneSeed3, 64, 65, 20, 30
7-BenzoylnimbocinolSeed3, 65
17-HydroxyazadiradioneSeed; Fruit3, 64, 65, 8, 16, 19, 68
EpoxyazadiradioneSeed; Fruit3, 65, 8, 20, 16, 19, 68
7-Deacetyl-7-benzoylepoxyazadiradioneSeed; Fruit3, 65, 56, 68
17-EpiazadiradioneSeed3, 64, 65
17-Epi-17-hydroxyazadiradioneSeed3, 64, 65
DesfuranoazadiradioneSeed; Fruit coat3, 65, 26
1,3-diacetylvilasininSeed; Leaf3, 64, 18
GeduninSeed; Fruit3, 65, 8, 16, 19, 68
7-DeacetylgeduninSeed3, 65
7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgeduninSeed3, 65
NimbinSeed3, 65, 8, 16, 19
28-deoxonimbolideSeed; Leaf3, 64, 14
Ohchinin acetateSeed3, 64
MeliantriolSeed8, 20
NimbocinoneLeaf8, 20, 28
NimolinoneFruit8, 20
AzadirachtolLeaf8, 20, 18
NimbolideLeaf8, 14, 25
SalanninSeed3, 64, 8, 20
AzadironeSeed; Fruit8, 20, 16, 22, 68
NimbocinolSeed3, 64, 8
MeldeninSeed8, 20, 66
Meldenin diol8, 20
Nimbolin AWood8
VilasininLeaf8, 67
NimolicinolSeed3, 64, 65, 8, 20, 19
NimocinolideLeaf8, 68
IsonimocinolideLeaf8, 68
3-DeacetylsalanninSeed; Leaf64, 8, 3, 23
Salannol acetate8
2',3'-DehydrosalannolSeed; Leaf64, 8, 23
Nimbolin BWood8
SalannolideSeed8, 57
Nimbandiol8, 20
KulactoneFruit coat20, 9
nimolininRoot Bark20, 10
NimbosoneStem Bark20, 11
Methyl nimbiolStem Bark20, 11
SugiolStem Bark20, 11
NimbosodioneStem Bark12
DeacetylsalanninLeaf20, 18
NimonolLeaf18, 22, 26, 42
NimbidiolRoot Bark20, 31
Azadirachtin ASeed21
Azadirachtin BSeed3, 65, 21
Azadirachtin DSeed21
Azadirachtin FSeed21
NimbioneStem Bark24
NimbinoneStem Bark24
LimocinolFruit Coat35
LimocinoneFruit Coat35
Limocin AFruit Coat35
Limocin BFruit Coat35
LimocininFruit Coat35
8-prenyl-5,7-dihydroxy-3’-(3-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutyl)-4’-methoxyflavanoneShoot; Leaf38
11-Hydroxyazadirachtin BSeed39
13,14-Desepoxyazadirachtin-ASeed kernel40
11-epi-azadirachtin DSeed44
OdoratoneSeed kernel48
2beta,3beta,4beta-Trihydroxypregnan-16-oneSeed kernel48
Gadoleic acidSeed54
SalimuzzalinFruit coat60
Azadirolic acidFruit coat60
AzadiradionolFruit coat60
AzadironolFruit coat60
2,6-Bis-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenolFruit coat63
3,4-Dihydro-4,4,5,8-tetramethylcoumarinFruit coat63
3,4-Dihydro-4,4,7,8-tetramethylcoumarin-6-olFruit coat63
alpha-HexylcinnamaldehydeFruit coat63
Methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoateFruit coat63
GaloxolideFruit coat63
Methyl 14-methyl-pentadecanoateFruit coat63
Ethyl oleateFruit coat63
DihydromyrcenolFruit coat63
NimosoneStem Bark20, 11
Methyl nimbiononeStem Bark20, 11
desacetylisonimbinolideTwig4, 20
NimocinFruit8, 22, 68
AzadirachnolFruit8, 20
Nimolicinoic acidFruit8, 69
Diacetyl azadirolFruit coat9
Triacetyl azadirolFruit coat9
NimbilinRoot Bark10
NimbisonolStem bark12
DemethylnimbionolStem bark12
IsonimolicinolideSeed; Fruit8, 56, 69
1alpha-methoxy-1,2-dihydro-epoxyazadiradioneSeed8, 56
1beta,2beta-diepoxyazadiradioneSeed8, 56
7-AcetylneotrichilenoneSeed8, 56
NimbonoloneStem Bark20, 33
4alpha, 6alpha-Dihydroxy-A-homoazadiradione20
Vilasinin triacetate20
Azadirachtin ESeed21
Azadirachtin GSeed21
6alpha-O-Acetyl-7-deacetylnimocinolLeaf22, 46
NimbononeStem Bark33
7alpha-Acetoxy- 4,4,8-trimethyl-5alpha-(13alpha-Me)-17-oxa-androsta-1,14-dien-3,16-dioneFruit Coat26
7alpha-Acetoxy- 4,4,8-trimethyl-5alpha-17-oxa-androsta-1,14-dien-3,16-dioneFruit Coat26
11-Epi-azadirachtin HSeed41
1alpha,7alpha-diacetoxyapotirucall-14-ene-3alpha,21,22,24,25-pentaolSeed kernel48
Indicalilacol AFruit55
Indicalilacol BFruit55
Indicalilacol CFruit55
Indicalilacol DFruit55

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Juice Analgesic 86
Methanol Gastric Cancer 91
Methanol Leukemia 91
Ethanol Skin Cancer 72
Methanol Leukemia 88
Ethanol Prostate Cancer 89
Ethanol Breast Cancer 90
Ethanol Cervical Cancer 90
Ethanol Antibacterial 73
Ethanol; Aqueous; Chloroform; Petroleum Ether Antibacterial 74
Methanol Antibacterial 75
Methanol Antiviral 77
Aqueous Antiviral 78
Aqueous Antiulcerant 79
Ethanol Antidiabetic 81
N/A Antidiabetic 82
Acetone Antidiabetic 83
Aqueous Cardioprotective 87
Leaf; Seed
Aqueous; Ethanol Antifungal 71
Aqueous; Methanol Anthelmintic 84
Aqueous; Ethanol Anthelmintic 85
Seed; Fruit; Leaf; Bark; Root
Water; Methanol; Ethanol; Chloroform Antifungal 70
Stem Bark
Ethanol; Acetone Antibacterial 76
Ethanol Antiulcerant 80


  • 1 Siddiqui, B.S., Afshan, F., Faizi, S., Naeem-ul-Hassan Naqvi, S. and Tariq, R.M. (2002) Two New Triterpenoids from Azadirachta i ndica and Their Insecticidal Activity. Journal of natural products, 65, 1216-1218.
  • 2 Siddiqui, B.S., Ghiasuddin, Faizi, S. and Rasheed, M. (1999) Triterpenoids of the fruit coats of Azadirachta indica. Journal of natural products, 62, 1006-1009.
  • 3 Kikuchi, T., Ishii, K., Noto, T., Takahashi, A., Tabata, K., Suzuki, T. and Akihisa, T. (2011) Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activities of limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem). Journal of natural products, 74, 866-870.
  • 4 Siddiqui, S., Mahmood, T., Siddiqui, B.S. and Faizi, S. (1986) Two new tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. Journal of Natural Products, 49, 1068-1073.
  • 5 Veitch, G.E., Pinto, A., Boyer, A., Beckmann, E., Anderson, J.C. and Ley, S.V. (2008) Synthesis of natural products from the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica. Organic letters, 10, 569-572.
  • 6 Sidhu, O., Kumar, V. and Behl, H.M. (2003) Variability in neem (Azadirachta indica) with respect to azadirachtin content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 910-915.
  • 7 Nakahara, K., Roy, M.K., Ono, H., Maeda, I., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M., Yoshida, M. and Trakoontivakorn, G. (2003) Prenylated flavanones isolated from flowers of Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) as antimutagenic constituents against heterocyclic amines. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51, 6456-6460.
  • 8 Siddiqui, S., Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Mahmood, T. (1988) Tetracyclic triterpenoids and their derivatives from Azadirachta indica. Journal of Natural Products, 51, 30-43.
  • 9 Siddiqui, S., Siddiqui, B.S. and Faizi, S. (1991) Tetracyclic triterpenoids of the fruit coats of Azadirachta indica. Journal of natural products, 54, 408-415.
  • 10 Ara, I., Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, S. (1989) Two new terpenoids from root bark of Azadirachta indica. Journal of Natural Products, 52, 1209-1213.
  • 11 Ara, I., Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, S. (1988) Tricyclic diterpenoids from the stem bark of Azadirachta indica. Journal of Natural Products, 51, 1054-1061.
  • 12 Ara, I., Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, S. (1990) Three new diterpenoids from the stem bark of Azadirachta indica. Journal of Natural Products, 53, 816-820.
  • 13 Caboni, P., Ntalli, N., Bueno, C. and Alche, L. (2012), Emerging Trends in Dietary Components for Preventing and Combating Disease. ACS Publications, pp. 51-77.
  • 14 Kigodi, P.G., Blaskó, G., Thebtaranonth, Y., Pezzuto, J.M. and Cordell, G.A. (1989) Spectroscopic and biological investigation of nimbolide and 28-deoxonimbolide from Azadirachta indica. Journal of natural products, 52, 1246-1251.
  • 15 Balandrin, M.F., Lee, S.M. and Klocke, J.A. (1988) Biologically active volatile organosulfur compounds from seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 36, 1048-1054.
  • 16 Siddiqui, S., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, B.S. (1992) Constituents of Azadirachta indica: isolation and structure elucidation of a new antibacterial tetranortriterpenoid, mahmoodin, and a new protolimonoid, naheedin. Journal of natural products, 55, 303-310.
  • 17 Kanokmedhakul, S., Kanokmedhakul, K., Prajuabsuk, T., Panichajakul, S., Panyamee, P., Prabpai, S. and Kongsaeree, P. (2005) Azadirachtin Derivatives from Seed Kernels of Azadirachta e xcelsa. Journal of natural products, 68, 1047-1050.
  • 18 Gualtieri, M.J., Malafronte, N., Vassallo, A., Braca, A., Cotugno, R., Vasaturo, M., De Tommasi, N. and Dal Piaz, F. (2014) Bioactive limonoids from the leaves of Azaridachta indica (Neem). Journal of natural products, 77, 596-602.
  • 19 Hallur, G., Sivramakrishnan, A. and Bhat, S.V. (2002) Three new tetranortriterpenoids from neem seed oil. Journal of natural products, 65, 1177-1179.
  • 20 Hansen, D.J., Cuomo, J., Khan, M., Gallagher, R.T. and Ellenberger, W.P. (1994). ACS Publications.
  • 21 Rembold, H. (1989). ACS Publications.
  • 22 Tan, Q.-G. and Luo, X.-D. (2011) Meliaceous limonoids: chemistry and biological activities. Chemical reviews, 111, 7437-7522.
  • 23 Garg, H. and Bhakuni, D. (1985) 2′, 3′-Dehydrosalannol, a tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica leaves. Phytochemistry, 24, 866-867.
  • 24 Ara, I., Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, S. (1988) Terpenoids from the stem bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 27, 1801-1804.
  • 25 Ekong, D.E. and Ibiyemi, S.A. (1985) Biosynthesis of nimbolide from [2-14C,(4R) 4-3H1] mevalonic acid lactone in the leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 24, 2259-2261.
  • 26 Siddiqui, S., Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Mahmood, T. (1984) Isolation of a tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 23, 2899-2901.
  • 27 Garg, H. and Bhakuni, D. (1984) An isoprenylated flavanone from leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 23, 2115-2118.
  • 28 Siddiqui, S., Mahmood, T., Siddiqui, B.S. and Faizi, S. (1986) Isolation of a triterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 25, 2183-2185.
  • 29 Siddiqui, S., Ara, I., Faizi, S., Mahmood, T. and Siddiqui, B.S. (1988) Phenolic tricyclic diterpenoids from the bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 27, 3903-3907.
  • 30 Lee, S.M., OLsEN, J.I., Schweizer, M.P. and Klocke, J.A. (1988) 7-Deacetyl-17β-hydroxyazadiradione, a new limonoid insect growth inhibitor from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 27, 2773-2775.
  • 31 Majumder, P., Maiti, D., Kraus, W. and Bokel, M. (1987) Nimbidiol, a modified diterpenoid of the root-bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 26, 3021-3023.
  • 32 Rojatkar, S.R., Bhat, V.S., Kulkarni, M.M., Joshi, V.S. and Nagasampagi, B.A. (1989) Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 28, 203-205.
  • 33 Ara, I., Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, S. (1989) Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 28, 1177-1180.
  • 34 Banerji, R., Misra, G. and Nigam, S. (1987) Identification of 24-methylenelophenol from heartwood of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 26, 2644-2645.
  • 35 Siddiqui, S., Siddiqui, B.S. and Faizi, S. (1991) Terpenoids from fruit coatings of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 30, 1615-1619.
  • 36 Siddiqui, B.S., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, S. (1992) Triterpenoids from the fresh coats of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry.
  • 37 Rojatkar, S. and Nagasampagi, B. (1992) 1-tigloyl-3-acetyl-11-hydroxy-4β-methylmeliacarpin from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 32, 213-214.
  • 38 Balasubramanian, C., Mohan, P., Arumugasamy, K. and Udaiyan, K. (1993) Flavanoid from resin glands of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 34, 1194-1195.
  • 39 Kumar, C.S., Srinivas, M. and Yakkundi, S. (1996) Limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 43, 451-455.
  • 40 Govindachari, T. and Gopalakrishnan, G. (1997) 13, 14-desepoxyazadirachtin-A, a tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 45, 397-399.
  • 41 Ramji, N., Venkatakrishnan, K. and Madyastha, K. (1996) 11-Epi-azadirachtin H from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 42, 561-562.
  • 42 Suresh, G., Narasimhan, N. and Palani, N. (1997) Structure of nimonol from fresh whole green leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 45, 807-810.
  • 43 Ragasa, C.Y., Nacpil, Z.D., Natividad, G.M., Tada, M., Coll, J.C. and Rideout, J.A. (1997) Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 46, 555-558.
  • 44 Ramji, N., Venkatakrishnan, K. and Madyastha, K. (1998) 11-epi-azadirachtin D: An epimeric azadirachtin analogue from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 49, 265-267.
  • 45 Sharma, V., Bali, A. and Singh, M. (1998) Two nonterpenoidal benzenoid constituents from leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 49, 2121-2123.
  • 46 Siddiqui, B.S., Afshan, F., Faizi, S., Naqvi, S. and Tariq, R. (2000) Two insecticidal tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 53, 371-376.
  • 47 Govindachari, T., Malathi, R., Gopalakrishnan, G., Suresh, G. and Rajan, S. (1999) Isolation of a new tetranortriterpenoid from the uncrushed green leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 52, 1117-1119.
  • 48 Luo, X.-D., Wu, S.-H., Ma, Y.-B. and Wu, D.-G. (2000) A new triterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Fitoterapia, 71, 668-672.
  • 49 Siddiqui, B.S., Afshan, F. and Faizi, S. (2001) Three novel tetracyclic triterpenoids of biogenetic interest from the leaves of Azadirachta indica. Tetrahedron, 57, 10281-10286.
  • 50 Siddiqui, B.S., Afshan, F., Gulzar, T. and Hanif, M. (2004) Tetracyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 65, 2363-2367.
  • 51 Mukherjee, A.K., Doley, R. and Saikia, D. (2008) Isolation of a snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor (AIPLAI) from leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem): Mechanism of PLA2 inhibition by AIPLAI in vitro condition. Toxicon, 51, 1548-1553.
  • 52 Saha, S., Galhardi, L.C., Yamamoto, K.A., Linhares, R.E.C., Bandyopadhyay, S.S., Sinha, S., Nozawa, C. and Ray, B. (2010) Water-extracted polysaccharides from Azadirachta indica leaves: Structural features, chemical modification and anti-bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) activity. International journal of biological macromolecules, 47, 640-645.
  • 53 Kumar, V.S., Navaratnam, V., Rajasekaran, A., Nair, N., Matharasi, D.S.P., Narasimhan, S. and Ramachandran, S. (2012) Isolation and characterization of glucosamine from Azadirachta indica leaves: An evaluation of immunostimulant activity in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2, S1561-S1567.
  • 54 Djenontin, T.S., Wotto, V.D., Avlessi, F., Lozano, P., Sohounhloué, D.K. and Pioch, D. (2012) Composition of Azadirachta indica and Carapa procera (Meliaceae) seed oils and cakes obtained after oil extraction. Industrial crops and products, 38, 39-45.
  • 55 Kurimoto, S.-i., Takaishi, Y., Ahmed, F.A. and Kashiwada, Y. (2014) Triterpenoids from the fruits of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). Fitoterapia, 92, 200-205.
  • 56 Kraus, W., Cramer, R. and Sawitzki, G. (1981) Tetranortriterpenoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 20, 117-120.
  • 57 Garg, H. and Bhakuni, D. (1984) Salannolide, a meliacin from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 23, 2383-2385.
  • 58 Ekundayo, O. (1983) Biosynthesis of nimbolide in Azadirachta indica A. Juss from (2-14C) mevalonate and (2-14C) acetate. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie, 112, 139-146.
  • 59 Deng, Y., Shi, D., Yin, Z., Guo, J., Jia, R., Xu, J., Song, X., Lv, C., Fan, Q. and Liang, X. (2012) Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and its four fractions separated by column chromatography against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Experimental parasitology, 130, 475-477.
  • 60 Siddiqui, B.S. and Faizi, S. (1998) Tetracyclic triterpenoids of the fruit coats of Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 47, 1631-1636.
  • 61 Biswas, K., Chattopadhyay, I., Banerjee, R.K. and Bandyopadhyay, U. (2002) Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Current Science, 1336-1345.
  • 62 Van der Nat, J., Van der Sluis, W., De Silva, K. and Labadie, R. (1991) Ethnopharmacognostical survey of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 35, 1-24.
  • 63 Siddiqui, B.S., Rasheed, M., Ilyas, F., Gulzar, T., Tariq, R.M. and Naqvi, S.N.-u.-H. (2004) Analysis of insecticidal Azadirachta indica A. Juss. fractions. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 59, 104-112.
  • 64 Akihisa, T., Takahashi, A., Kikuchi, T., Takagi, M., Watanabe, K., Fukatsu, M., Fujita, Y., Banno, N., Tokuda, H. and Yasukawa, K. (2011) The melanogenesis-inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive effects of limonoids in n-hexane extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.(neem) seeds. Journal of oleo science, 60, 53-59.
  • 65 Akihisa, T., Noto, T., Takahashi, A., Fujita, Y., Banno, N., Tokuda, H., Koike, K., Suzuki, T., Yasukawa, K. and Kimura, Y. (2009) Melanogenesis inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive effects of limonoids from the seeds of Azadirachta indicia A. Juss.(neem). Journal of oleo science, 58, 581-594.
  • 66 Connolly, J., Handa, K. and McCrindle, R. (1968) Further constituents of nim oil: The constitution of meldenin. Tetrahedron Letters, 9, 437-440.
  • 67 Pachapurkar, R., Kornule, P. and Narayana, C. (1974) A new hexacyclic tetranortriterpenoid. Chemistry Letters, 3, 357-358.
  • 68 Siddiqui, S., Faizi, S., Mahmood, T. and Siddiqui, B.S. (1986) Two new insect growth regulator meliacins from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae). Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, 1021-1025.
  • 69 Siddiqui, S., Mahmood, T., Faizi, S. and Siddiqui, B.S. (1987) Studies in the chemical constituents of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (meliaceae). Part 10. Isolation and structure elucidation of isonimolicinolide, the first 17-acetoxy tetranortriterpenoid and nimolicinoic acid, the first hexanortriterpenoid with an apoeuphane (apotirucallane) skeleton. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, 1429-1432.
  • 70 Onifade, A. (2000) Antifungal effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss extracts on Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6, 425-428.
  • 71 Al-Hazmi, R. (2013) Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and seeds extract on the growth of six of the plant disease causing fungi. Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology, 2, 089-098.
  • 72 Subapriya, R., Bhuvaneswari, V. and Nagini, S. (2005) Ethanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract induces apoptosis in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model by modulation of Bcl-2, Bim, caspase 8 and caspase 3. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 6, 515.
  • 73 Mahfuzul Hoque, M., Bari, M., Inatsu, Y., Juneja, V.K. and Kawamoto, S. (2007) Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Foodborne pathogens and disease, 4, 481-488.
  • 74 Rajasekaran, C. (2008) Investigations on antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae): a traditional medicinal plant of India.
  • 75 Thakurta, P., Bhowmik, P., Mukherjee, S., Hajra, T.K., Patra, A. and Bag, P.K. (2007) Antibacterial, antisecretory and antihemorrhagic activity of Azadirachta indica used to treat cholera and diarrhea in India. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 111, 607-612.
  • 76 Harriet, U., Mathew, B. and Nandita, D. (2017) Studies on antibacterial spectrum of extracts of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Juss on some clinical isolates associated with urinary tract infection. African Journal of Bacteriology Research, 9, 37-43.
  • 77 Badam, L., Joshi, S. and Bedekar, S. (1999) 'In vitro'antiviral activity of neem (Azadirachta indica. A. Juss) leaf extract against group B coxsackieviruses. The Journal of communicable diseases, 31, 79-90.
  • 78 Parida, M., Upadhyay, C., Pandya, G. and Jana, A. (2002) Inhibitory potential of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) leaves on dengue virus type-2 replication. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 79, 273-278.
  • 79 Chattopadhyay, I., Nandi, B., Chatterjee, R., Biswas, K., Bandyopadhyay, U. and Banerjee, R.K. (2004) Mechanism of antiulcer effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract: effect on H+-K+-ATPase, oxidative damage and apoptosis. Inflammopharmacology, 12, 153-176.
  • 80 Raji, Y., Ogunwande, I.A., Osadebe, C.A. and John, G. (2004) Effects of Azadirachta indica extract on gastric ulceration and acid secretion in rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 90, 167-170.
  • 81 Ebong, P.E., Atangwho, I.J., Eyong, E.U. and Egbung, G.E. (2008) The antidiabetic efficacy of combined extracts from two continental plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss)(Neem) and Vernonia amygdalina (Del.)(African bitter leaf). American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 4, 239-244.
  • 82 Atangwho, I., Ebong, P., Eyong, E., Williams, I., Eten, M. and Egbung, G. (2009) Comparative chemical composition of leaves of some antidiabetic medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8.
  • 83 Kazeem, M., Dansu, T. and Adeola, S. (2013) Inhibitory Effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Leaf Extract on the Activities of cz-Amylase and oz-Glucosidase. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16, 1358-1362.
  • 84 Iqbal, Z., Lateef, M., Jabbar, A. and Gilani, A. (2010) In vivo anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Veterinary parasitology, 168, 342-345.
  • 85 Hördegen, P., Hertzberg, H., Heilmann, J., Langhans, W. and Maurer, V. (2003) The anthelmintic efficacy of five plant products against gastrointestinal trichostrongylids in artificially infected lambs. Veterinary Parasitology, 117, 51-60.
  • 86 Gomase, P.V., Shire, P.S., Nazim, S., Choudhari, A.B., Shaikh, S. and Khairnar, A. (2011) Phytochemical evaluation and analgesic activity of fresh juice of young stem (tender) bark of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Pharm Lett, 3, 407-415.
  • 87 Peer, P.A., Trivedi, P.C., Nigade, P.B., Ghaisas, M.M. and Deshpande, A.D. (2008) Cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in rats. International journal of cardiology, 126, 123-126.
  • 88 Schumacher, M., Cerella, C., Reuter, S., Dicato, M. and Diederich, M. (2011) Anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of a methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract are mediated via modulation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway. Genes & nutrition, 6, 149.
  • 89 Kumar, S., Suresh, P., Vijayababu, M., Arunkumar, A. and Arunakaran, J. (2006) Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). Journal of ethnopharmacology, 105, 246-250.
  • 90 Sharma, C., Vas, A.J., Goala, P., Gheewala, T.M., Rizvi, T.A. and Hussain, A. (2014) Ethanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract prevents growth of MCF-7 and HeLa cells and potentiates the therapeutic index of cisplatin. Journal of oncology, 2014.
  • 91 Kitdamrongtham, W., Ishii, K., Ebina, K., Zhang, J., Ukiya, M., Koike, K., Akazawa, H., Manosroi, A., Manosroi, J. and Akihisa, T. (2014) Limonoids and Flavonoids from the Flowers of Azadirachta indica var. siamensis, and Their Melanogenesis‐Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities. Chemistry & biodiversity, 11, 73-84.
  • 92 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 93 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.