Cocos nucifera L.

Family: Arecaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Narikel (Bengali), Cocoanut (England), Ke ke ye zi (Chinese), Noix de coco (French), Kokos (German), Naariyal (Hindi), Koko yashi (Japanese).

Local Availability

Cultivated throughout Bangladesh.

Worldwide Availability

All over the world  

Botanical Description 22

The tree is about 24 meter in height, having curved annulate or sraigth stem. The leaflets are linear laceolate, are quite large and about 1.8-4.5 m in length, pinnatisect. The spadix is simply panicl

Common Ethnobotanical Use 23

The milk of coconut is nutrient, diuretic, aphrodisiac, anthelminitic, laxative, refrigerant, aperients, oleaginous, usually taken in bronchitis. The water is demulcent, also refrigerant and aperients in large dose. In urinary disorders and fever, the water from unripe fruit is largely used, while it gives cooling effects in diarrrhoea and dysentery. Oil from the fruit is antiseptic and rebefacient, and fresh plup from its young stage is cooling, cathartic, diuretic and nourishing. The farmated juice is valuable for piles, scabies and lumber pain, is also anthelminitc. Furthermore, roots are taken in uterine disease, diuretic and astringent. Flowers are useful in dysentery and diabetes and also are cooling and astringent.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
HeptaneFiber2
TolueneFiber2
2-FuraldehydeFiber2
BenzaldehydeFloral Axis; Root3
LinaloolFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohex-2-enoneFlower; Floral Axis3
p-VinylguaiacolFiber1
EugenolFiber1
HeneicosaneFlower; Floral Axis3
OctanolFlower; Root3
Benzyl alcoholFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
Methyl salicylateFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
GeraniolFlower; Root3
n-HeptadecaneFloral Axis; Root3
Inositol4
VanillinFiber1
MethylparabenFiber1
SyringaldehydeFiber1
Succinic acid4
Quinic acid4
D-Sorbitol4
D-Mannitol4
Phenol,24 bis(1,1-Dimethylethyl)Flower; Floral Axis; Root3
(Z)-3-HexenolFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
4-((1E)-3-Hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenolFiber1
PhenolFiber1
Malic Acid4
Citric Acid4
2-Methoxy-4-methyl phenolFiber1
2-FuranmethanolFiber2
2,6-Dimethoxy PhenolFiber1
Ethanolamine4
Tartaric4
Acetic acid4
Shikimic acid4
Auxin4
1,3-Diphenylurea4
Cytokinin4
3-methylphenolFiber1
4-methylphenolFiber1
GuaiacolFiber1
4-ethylphenolFiber1
4-vinylphenolFiber1
4-ethylguaiacolFiber1
cis-IsoeugenolFiber1
4-methylsyringolFiber1
trans-IsoeugenolFiber1
HomovanillinFiber1
AcetovanilloneFiber1
EthylsyringolFiber1
Vanillic acid methyl esterFiber1
GuaiacylacetoneFiber1
Vinyl syringolFiber1
PropiovanilloneFiber1
Guaiacyl vinyl ketoneFiber1
4-allyl syringolFiber1
trans-PropenylsyringolFiber1
AcetosyringoneFiber1
trans-ConiferaldehydeFiber1
SyringylacetoneFiber1
trans-SinapaldehydeFiber1
trans-Sinapyl alcoholFiber1
Maleic anhydrideFiber2
Lauric anhydrideFiber2
CyclopentanoneFiber2
CyclopentanedioneFiber2
HexenoneFiber2
BenzofuranFiber2
[[(2-Ethylhexyl)oxy]methyl]-oxiraneFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
1-HeptanolFlower; Root3
5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-4-hexen-1-olFloral Axis; Root3
alpha-Methyl-alpha-[4-methyl-3-pentenyl]oxiranemethanolFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
6-Ethenyltetrahydro-2,2,6-trimethyl-2H-pyran-3-olFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
6-Ethenyldihydro-2,2,6-trimethyl-2H-pyran-3(4H)-oneFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
Acetic acid phenylmethyl esterFlower; Root3
2-Methoxy-benzoic acid methyl esterFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
Propanoic acid phenylmethyl esterFlower; Root3
2-Methyl-propanoic acid-2-ethyl-3-hydroxyhexyl esterFlower; Floral Axis; Root3
Ethyl 2-(5-methyl-5-vinyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl)propan-2-yl carbonateFlower; Floral Axis; Root3

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Aerial; Root
Aqueous; Methanol Antibacterial 8
Bark
Butanol Anthelmintic 10
Brunch
Methanol Antidiabetic 14
Fruit
Hydromethanol Leukemia 20
Milk Antiulcerant 12
Water Cardioprotective 13
Water Antidiabetic 15
Methanol Antidiabetic 16
Water Cardioprotective 18
Husk Fiber
Aqueous Leukemia 5
Aqueous Leukemia 5
Water Antibacterial 7
Water Antiviral 7
Aqueous Analgesic 11
Inflorescence
Acetone; Aqueous Cervical Cancer 21
Acetone; Aqueous Prostate Cancer 21
Root
Aqueous Antibacterial 9
Ethanol Anticonvulsant 17
Shell
Alcoholic Antifungal 6

References

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  • 2 Almeida, T.M., Bispo, M.D., Cardoso, A.R., Migliorini, M.V., Schena, T., de Campos, M.C.V., Machado, M.E., López, J.A., Krause, L.C. and Caramão, E.B. (2013) Preliminary studies of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of coconut fibers. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 61, 6812-6821.
  • 3 Shen, X., Chen, W., Zheng, Y., Lei, X., Tang, M., Wang, H. and Song, F. (2017) Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydrosols from different parts of Areca catechu L. and Cocos nucifera L. Industrial crops and products, 96, 110-119.
  • 4 Yong, J.W., Ge, L., Ng, Y.F. and Tan, S.N. (2009) The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water. Molecules, 14, 5144-5164.
  • 5 Koschek, P., Alviano, D., Alviano, C. and Gattass, C. (2007) The husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L.(Palmae) is a source of anti-neoplastic activity. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 40, 1339-1343.
  • 6 Venkataraman, S., Ramanujam, T. and Venkatasubbu, V. (1980) Antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shell—Cocos nucifera Linn. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2, 291-293.
  • 7 Esquenazi, D., Wigg, M.D., Miranda, M.M., Rodrigues, H.M., Tostes, J.B., Rozental, S., da Silva, A.J. and Alviano, C.S. (2002) Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocos nucifera Linn.(Palmae) husk fiber extract. Research in microbiology, 153, 647-652.
  • 8 Alanis, A., Calzada, F., Cervantes, J., Torres, J. and Ceballos, G. (2005) Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100, 153-157.
  • 9 SIVAKUMAR, M.K. (2011) ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF ROOT AND BARK OF COCOS NUCIFERA LINN. AGAINST ISOLATED URINARY TRACT INFECTION CAUSING PATHOGENS M. KOMALA SIVAKUMAR*, M. MOHAMMED MOIDEEN* 2, RUBY VARGHESE* 2 AND KP SAMPATH KUMAR* 3.
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