Colocasia esculenta Linn.

Family: Araceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Kachu (Bengali), Taro (England), Sato imo (Japanese), Aro (Spanish), Lao hu guang cai (Chinese), Kolokasie (German), Alu (Indian).

Local Availability

In most of the districts, cultivated and wild.

Worldwide Availability

It is a wild plant and cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India and Ceylon. It is cultivated in all hot countries.

Botanical Description 15

The plant tall herb which has tuberous stem in underground, erect petiole; about 1.2 m in length, lamina peltate-ovate. At the base cordate is up to 50 cm long. Spathe is 15-35 cm long, pale yellow, l

Common Ethnobotanical Use 16

Petioles of the plants used to make juice which is stimulant, styptic and rubefacient applied in athlet’s foot to stop bleeding from cuts. Leaves are mostly used in cancer as juice, in ulcerated polyp, tumours, cancer of nose and warts. Corm juice is used in piles, congestion of the portal system, laxative and alopecia.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Diethyl etherCormel5
ButanedioneCormel2, 5
HexaneCormel5
3-MethylbutanalCormel2, 5
CyclohexaneCormel5
Pentane-2,3-dioneCormel2, 5
PyridineCormel2, 5
TolueneCormel5
DimethylcyclohexaneCormel5
OctaneCormel1, 5
HexanalCormel2, 5
2-FuraldehydeCormel2, 5
BenzaldehydeCormel2, 5
2-PentylfuranCormel2, 5
LinaloolCormel5
NonanalCormel2, 5
3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohex-2-enoneCormel2, 5
Indole Cormel5
p-VinylguaiacolCormel2, 5
OctadecaneCormel5
NonadecaneCormel5
Dibutyl phthalateCormel5
EicosaneCormel5
HeneicosaneCormel5
TetracosaneCormel1, 5
PentacosaneCormel1, 5
N-MethylpyrroleCormel2, 5
2,3-DihydrobenzofuranCormel2
beta-sitosterolBark3
Decan-2-oneCormel2, 5
Nonanoic acid1
Octadecanoic acid1
2-acetylthiazoleCormel2, 5
DecanalCormel2, 5
1-NonadeceneCormel5
n-Hexadecan-1-olCormel2, 5
Octadeca-9,12-dienoic acidCormel5
OrientinShoot; Leaf4, 6
IsoorientinShoot; Leaf4, 6
ChrysoeriolLeaf6
trans-p-Coumaric acidLeaf6
Caffeic acidLeaf6
VitexinShoot; Leaf4, 6
Arachidic Acid1
(Z)-3-HexenolCormel2, 5
Diethyl pthalateCormel5
HexanolCormel2, 5
Cinnamic AcidBark3
2,6-Bis-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenolCormel5
IsovitexinShoot; Leaf4, 6
1-Octen-3-olCormel2, 5
2-MethylpropanalCormel1, 5
2-MethylbutanalCormel2, 5
5-Methyl-2-phenylhex-2-enalCormel2, 5
PhenylacetaldehydeCormel2, 5
2-MethylthiopheneCormel2, 5
Thiophene-2-carboxaldehydeCormel2, 5
Thiophene-3-carboxaldehydeCormel2
BenzothiazoleCormel2, 5
2-Methylbutan-2-olCormel2, 5
2-Methylbut-3-en-2-olCormel2, 5
3-Methylbutan-1-olCormel2
Pentan-1-olCormel2, 5
Nonan-2-oneCormel2, 5
gamma-DecalactoneCormel2, 5
delta-DecalactoneCormel2, 5
Isoamericanol ABark3
Americanol ABark3
(-)-PinoresinolBark3
(+)-YangambinBark3
(-)-SyringaresinolBark3
N-trans-FeruloyltyramineBark3
SchaftosideShoot4
IsoschaftosideShoot4
Luteolin 7-O-sophorosideShoot4
Di-(2-methylpropyl) phthalateCormel5
2-MethylheptaneCormel5
2,3-DimethylhexaneCormel5
2,4-DimethylhexaneCormel5
Eicos-1-eneCormel5
Tetracos-1-eneCormel5
Cyanidin-3-rutinoside7
5-O-caffeoylquinic acidLeaf6
Luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucosideLeaf6
Colocasinol ABark3
cis-Grossamide KBark3
2-Hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyBark3

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Leaf
Methanol Breast Cancer 9
Ethanol Antifungal 10
Aqueous Antifungal 12
Methanol Antibacterial 10
Ethyl Acetate Antibacterial 11
Aqueous Antibacterial 12
Ethanol Antidiabetic 13
Aqueous; Ethanol Anthelmintic 14
Whole Plant
PBS Colon Cancer 8

References

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  • 2 Maga, J. and Liu, M. (1994). ACS Publications.
  • 3 Kim, K.H., Moon, E., Kim, S.Y. and Lee, K.R. (2010) Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic activity. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58, 4779-4785.
  • 4 Leong, A.C.-N., Kinjo, Y., Tako, M., Iwasaki, H., Oku, H. and Tamaki, H. (2010) Flavonoid glycosides in the shoot system of Okinawa Taumu (Colocasia esculenta S.). Food Chemistry, 119, 630-635.
  • 5 MacLeod, G. (1990) Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the aroma components of cooked taro (Colocasia esculenta L.). Food chemistry, 38, 89-96.
  • 6 Ferreres, F., Gonçalves, R.F., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Valentão, P., Silva, A.M., Silva, J.o.B., Santos, D. and Andrade, P.B. (2012) Further knowledge on the phenolic profile of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60, 7005-7015.
  • 7 Terasawa, N., Saotome, A., Tachimura, Y., Mochizuki, A., Ono, H., Takenaka, M. and Murata, M. (2007) Identification and some properties of anthocyanin isolated from Zuiki, stalk of Colocasia esculenta. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 55, 4154-4159.
  • 8 Brown, A.C., Reitzenstein, J.E., Liu, J. and Jadus, M.R. (2005) The anti‐cancer effects of poi (Colocasia esculenta) on colonic adenocarcinoma cells In vitro. Phytotherapy Research, 19, 767-771.
  • 9 Malviya, J. and Joshi, V. (2016) Anticancer Activity Evaluation and Some Indian Medicinal Plants from Amarkantak Mekal Plateau Madhya Pradesh, India. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 5, 478-483.
  • 10 Dutta, S. and Aich, B. (2017) STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF COLOCASIA ESCULENTA LINN. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 8, 1184.
  • 11 Nakade, D., Mahesh, S., Kiran, N. and Vinayak, S. (2013) Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of western region wild leaf of Colocasia esculenta. Int Res J Biol Sci, 2, 18-21.
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