Crataeva nurvala

Family: Capparidaceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Barun, Bannay, Tikoshak (Bengali), Three leaved Caper (England), Kaingtha (Mogh), Jong-sia (Garo), La Pova(Marma), Pitagola (Chittagong), Barna (Hindi).

Local Availability

Throughout Bangladesh on river bank, canal banks and low-laying areas.

Worldwide Availability

The small wild or cultivated tree is widespread from India to Southeast Asia, south of China. It grows lowlands to an altitude of 1000 m above sea level. It occurs on glades, at the edge of a forest, near rivers and lakes, etc

Botanical Description 25

Crataeva nurvala is miniature, branched, deciduous tree. Leaves are ovate,obovate or lanceolate, 3-foliolate, 5-25 cm in length. A lot of flowers in dense terminal corymbs, greenish white, stamens lon

Common Ethnobotanical Use 26

Flowers are cholagogue and astringent. In loss of appetite, a couple buds crushed and taken with salt, before meal. Fruits are laxative. Bark is stomachic, laxative, demulcent; used in fever, vomiting and symptoms of gastric irritation. Bark is also useful in bladder stones and kidney disease. The fruits are laxative. Roots and bark are laxative, lithontriptic, anthelmintic, expectorant; promote appetite and increases biliary secretion. However the bark is bitter, poisonous, its juice is given to women as a contraceptive after childbirth. Leaves are stomachic, tonic, rubefacient and febrifuge; used in rheumatism.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
LupeolStem Bark, Bark, Root Bark1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
StigmasterolStem Bark4
beta-sitosterolStem Bark, Root bark4, 6, 7
Betulinic acidStem Bark4
Lauric anhydrideLeaf10
Phragmalin triacetate Stem Bark1
MelatoninStem Bark9
Lupeol acetateRoot Bark7
alpha-Spinasterol acetateRoot Bark7
psi-TaraxasterolRoot Bark7
3-EpilupeolRoot Bark7
LupenoneRoot Bark7
beta-Sitosterol acetateRoot Bark7
Methyl pentacosanoateLeaf10
CadabicineStem Bark11, 12
Lupa-21,20(29)diene-3beta-olRoot Bark14
(-)-Epiafzelechin 5-o-beta-D-glucosideBark15

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Ethanol Prostate Cancer 16
Methanol Breast Cancer 24
Methanol Cervical Cancer 24
Chloroform Antibacterial 17
Aqueous; Alcohol; Petroleum Ether; Chloroform Antidiabetic 18
Hydroethanol Antidiabetic 20
Organic Antiarthritic 21
Ethanol Antiulcerant 22
Whole Plant
Ethanol Antidiabetic 19


  • 1 Haque, M.E., Islam, M.N., Gupta, D.D., Hossain, M., Shekhar, H.U. and Shibib, B.A. (2008) Triterpenoids from the Stem Bark of Crataeva nurvala. Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7, 71-74.
  • 2 Anand, R., Patnaik, G., Kulshreshtha, D. and Dhawan, B. (1994) Antiurolithiatic activity of lupeol, the active constituent isolated from Crateva nurvala. Phytotherapy research, 8, 417-421.
  • 3 Dobhal, M. The Isolation, Characterization of Lupeol from Crataeva nurvala and Their Chemical Modification.
  • 4 Parvin, S., Kader, M.A., Muhit, M.A., Haque, M.E., Mosaddik, M.A. and Wahed, M.I.I. (2011) Triterpenoids and phytosteroids from stem bark of Crataeva nurvala buch ham.
  • 5 Shirwaikar, A., Setty, M.M., Bommu, P. and Krishnanand, B. (2004) Effect of lupeol isolated from Crataeva nurvala Buch.-Ham. stem bark extract against free radical induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
  • 6 Bhandari, P., Dhar, M. and Sharma, V. (1951) Chemical constituents of the root bark of Crataeva nurvala Ham.
  • 7 Lakshmi, M.V. and Chauhan, J. (1975) Triterpenoids and related compounds from Crataeva nurvala. Planta medica, 27, 254-256.
  • 8 Gagandeep, M. and Kalidhar, S. (2009) Chemical investigation of Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. fruits. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 71, 129.
  • 9 Bhattacharjee, A., Shashidhara, S.C. and Saha, S. (2014) Isolation, Purification and Structural Elucidation of N-Acetyl-5-Methoxytryptamine (Melatonin) From Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham Stem Bark. International Journal of Medical Research and Review, 2, 301-309.
  • 10 Gangandeep, M. and Kalidhar, S. (2006) Chemical constituents of Crataeva nurvula Leaves. Indian J. Pharm. Sci, 68, 804-806.
  • 11 Bopana, N. and Saxena, S. (2008) Crataeva nurvala: a valuable medicinal plant. Journal of herbs, spices & medicinal plants, 14, 107-127.
  • 12 Ahmad, V.U., Fizza, K., Amber, A.-u.-R. and Arif, S. (1987) Cadabicine and cadabicine diacetate from Crataeva nurvala and Cadaba farinosa. Journal of Natural Products, 50, 1186-1186.
  • 14 Lakshmi, V. and Chauhan, J. (1977) A new pentacyclic triterpene from the root bark of Crateva nurvala. Planta medica, 32, 214-216.
  • 15 Sethi, V., Taneja, S., Dhar, K. and Atal, C. (1984) (−)-Epiafzelechin 5-O-βD-glucoside from crataeva religiosa. Phytochemistry, 23, 2402-2403.
  • 16 Kumar, D.G., Parvathi, V., Meenakshi, P., Rathi, M.A. and Gopalakrishnan, V.K. (2012) Anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of Crateva nurvala bark against testosterone and MNU-induced prostate cancer in rats. Chinese journal of natural medicines, 10, 334-338.
  • 17 Shumaia, P. (2012) Md. Abdul K, Md. Ajijur R, Mir IBW, Md. Ekramul H. antibacterial activities and brine shrimp lethiality bioassay of the chloroform extract of stem bark of Crataeva nurvala buch ham. Int J Pharm Sci & Res, 3, 830-834.
  • 18 Sikarwar, M.S. and Patil, M. (2010) Antidiabetic activity of Crateva nurvala stem bark extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of pharmacy and bioallied sciences, 2, 18.
  • 19 Lakshmi, V., Mahdi, A.A., Ahmad, M.K., Agarwal, S.K. and Srivastava, A.K. (2015) Antidiabetic activity of lupeol and lupeol esters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 17, 138-146.
  • 20 Raut, N.A. and Gaikwad, N.J. (2017) Anti-diabetic Potential of Fractions of Hydro-ethanol Extract of Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research, 3, 281-283.
  • 21 Geetha, T. and Varalakshmi, P. (1999) Anticomplement activity of triterpenes from Crataeva nurvala stem bark in adjuvant arthritis in rats. General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, 32, 495-497.
  • 22 Lakshmi, V., Mishra, V., Palit, G., Gupta, S. and Agarwal, S. (2014) Lupeol And Lupeol Esters Protect The Gastric Ulcer In Rats. Natural Products: An Indian Journal, 10, 113-122.
  • 23 Sudharsan, P., Mythili, Y., Selvakumar, E. and Varalakshmi, P. (2005) Cardioprotective effect of pentacyclic triterpene, lupeol and its ester on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress. Human & experimental toxicology, 24, 313-318.
  • 24 Sinha, S., Mishra, P., Amin, H., Rah, B., Nayak, D., Goswami, A., Kumar, N., Vishwakarma, R. and Ghosal, S. (2013) A new cytotoxic quinolone alkaloid and a pentacyclic steroidal glycoside from the stem bark of Crataeva nurvala: Study of anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing property. European journal of medicinal chemistry, 60, 490-496.
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