Acacia catechu Willd.

Family: Mimosaceae

Synonyms

Acacia sundra (Roxb.) Bedd., Acacia catechuoides (Roxb.) Benth., Mimosa catechu L.f

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Khair (Bengali), Katha (Bengali), Khadir (Bengali), Kutch tree (English)

Local Availability

Bogra, Faridpur, Pabna and Rajshahi

Worldwide Availability

Asia, China, India and the Indian Ocean area

Botanical Description 16

Acacia catechu willd. is a modest sized spiny deciduous plant; spines short hooked in pairs. Leaves 2-pinnate; pinnae 40-80; leaflets 60-100, small ligulate. Flowers are small, pale yellow or white in

Common Ethnobotanical Use 17

Bark is astringent, anthelmintic, antidysenteric, antipyretic; cures itching, bronchitis, ulcers, leucoderma, psoriasis, leprosy and elephantiasis. A. catechu is used to strengthen the teeth. The decoction prepared from bark mixed with milk is taken to cure cold and cough. The bark decoction is taken either alone or in combination with opium to cure severe diarrhea. Dried Katha is applied on lemon slice and taken regularly with empty stomach to cure piles. Decoction is prepared by boiling the heartwood of khair with other ingredients. It is taken to cure fever due to cold during the pregnancy. Decoction prepared from heartwood is applied in mouth and on tongue to cure mouth ulcer.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Quercetin 3-O-glucosideLeaf5
Hexadecanoic acidLeaf5
Octadecanoic acidLeaf5
Gallic-acidLeaf5
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid1
(5R)-5-(3,4-Dihydrophenyl)-gamma-valerolactone1
Isovanillic acid1
4-Methyl pyrocatechol 1
Pyrocatechol 1
(+)-Aromadendrin1
(+)-Taxifolin1
(+)-Catechin1, 3, 6, 7, 8
(+)-Isolariciresinol 1
(+)-Lyoniresinol1
5-Hydroxy-2-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetyl]-3-methoxylbenzoic acid2
Rhamnetin2
4-Hydroxyphenyl ethanol 2
3,3',5,5',7-Pentahydroxyflavane2
Fisetinidol2
(-)-Epicatechol4
3-Methoxyflavone4
4-Hydroxypipecolic acid4
7,3',4'-Trihydroxy-8-Methoxyflavonol4
7,3,4-Trihydroxy-3,8-Dimethoxyflavone4
Acetaldehyde4
alpha-Amino-beta-Oxalylaminopropionic acid4
L-(+)-Lactic acidLeaf5
UreaLeaf5
Pipecolic acidLeaf5
GlycerolLeaf5
Phosphoric acidLeaf5
Succinic acidLeaf5
Glyceric acidLeaf5
D-Malic acidLeaf5
O-Acetylsalicylic acidLeaf5
4-Guanidinobutyric acidLeaf5
PhenylalanineLeaf5
PhenylethylamineLeaf5
Meleamic acidLeaf5
Lauric acidLeaf5
L-AsparagineLeaf5
XylitolLeaf5
ArabitolLeaf5
PutrescineLeaf5
Methyl-beta-D-galactopyranosideLeaf5
Quinic acidLeaf5
AllantoinLeaf5
TyramineLeaf5
D-SorbitolLeaf5
D-MannitolLeaf5
DopamineLeaf5
L-TryptophanLeaf5
SerotoninLeaf5
Flavan-3-olHeartwood7
(-)-Epicatechin-3-O-gallateHeartwood7
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallateHeartwood7
3,5,7,4’-Tetrahydroxyflavan9
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid 9
4-Hydroxyphenylethanol9
Profisetidin9
Ellagic acid9
EpicatechinHeartwood7, 8
Epicatechin-3-O-gallateHeartwood7
Planchol A1
(4S,5R)-4-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(3-Oxobutyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one1
(5R)-5-(1-(3,4-Dihydrophenyl)-3-oxobutyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one1, 2
(2S,3S)-3,7,8,3’,4’-Pentahydroxyflavane2
5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy flavone-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosideStem10
(3R,4R)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxycyclohexanone11
(4R)-5-(1-(3,4-Dihydrophenyl)-3-oxobutyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one11

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Bark; Heartwood
Ethanol Colon Cancer 12
Ethanol Cervical Cancer 12
Ethanol Breast Cancer 12
Heartwood
Aqueous Breast Cancer 13
Leaf
Petroleum Ether; Ethanol; Hydroalcohol Antifungal 15
Resin
Petroleum Ether; Aqueous; Chloroform Antimicrobial 14

References

  • 1 Sun, Y.N., Li, W., Song, S.B., Yan, X.T., Zhao, Y., Jo, A.R., Kang, J.S. and Young Ho, K. (2016) A new phenolic derivative with soluble epoxide hydrolase and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitory activity from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu. Natural product research, 30, 2085-2092.
  • 2 Li, X.-C., Liu, C., Yang, L.-X. and Chen, R.-Y. (2011) Phenolic compounds from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu. Journal of Asian natural products research, 13, 826-830.
  • 3 Hye, M., Taher, M., Ali, M., Ali, M. and Zaman, S. (2009) Isolation of (+)-catechin from Acacia catechu (Cutch Tree) by a convenient method. Journal of scientific research, 1, 300-305.
  • 4 Duke, J.A. (1992) Database of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. CRC Press.
  • 5 Saha, M.R., Dey, P., Begum, S., De, B., Chaudhuri, T.K., De Sarker, D., Das, A.P. and Sen, A. (2016) Effect of Acacia catechu (Lf) Willd. on oxidative stress with possible implications in alleviating selected cognitive disorders. PloS one, 11, e0150574.
  • 6 Azad, A.K., Ogiyama, K. and Sassa, T. (2001) Isolation of (+)-catechin and a new polyphenolic compound in Bengal catechu. Journal of wood science, 47, 406-409.
  • 7 Shen, D., Wu, Q., Wang, M., Yang, Y., Lavoie, E.J. and Simon, J.E. (2006) Determination of the predominant catechins in Acacia catechu by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization− mass spectrometry. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54, 3219-3224.
  • 8 Wang, G., Yu, J., Tian, J. and Zhang, J. (1999) Study on Chemical Composition of Catechu—Quantitative Determination of Catechin and Epicatechin by RPHPLC. Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 19, 88-90.
  • 9 Duval, A. and Avérous, L. (2016) Characterization and physicochemical properties of condensed tannins from Acacia catechu. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 64, 1751-1760.
  • 10 Yadava, R. and Sodhi, S. (2002) A new flavone glycoside: 5, 7, 3′, 4′-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy flavone-7-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside from the stem of Acacia catechu willd. Journal of Asian natural products research, 4, 11-15.
  • 11 Li, X.C., Yang, L.X., Wang, H.Q. and Chen, R.Y. (2011) Phenolic compounds from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu. Chinese Chemical Letters, 22, 1331-1334.
  • 12 Diab, K.A., Guru, S.K., Bhushan, S. and Saxena, A.K. (2015) In VitroAnticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 16, 6423-6428.
  • 13 Monga, J., Chauhan, C.S. and Sharma, M. (2013) Human breast adenocarcinoma cytotoxicity and modulation of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz [a] anthracene-Induced Mammary Carcinoma in Balb/c Mice by Acacia catechu (Lf) wild heartwood. Integrative cancer therapies, 12, 347-362.
  • 14 Patel, J.D., Kumar, V. and Bhatt, S.A. (2009) Antimicrobial screening and phytochemical analysis of the resin part of Acacia catechu. Pharmaceutical biology, 47, 34-37.
  • 15 Gulzar, A., Manjul, P., Anita, S., Upendra, K. and Yatendra, K. (2010) Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of leaves extract of Acacia catechu Willd. J Pharm Res, 3, 2583-2584.
  • 16 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 17 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.