Curcuma longa L.

Family: Zingiberaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Halud(Bengali), Turmeric(England), Ranjan(Marma), Sudai(Tipra), Yu chin (Chinese), Haridra (Sanskrit), Taamerikku (Japanese)

Local Availability

Cultivated all over Bangladesh

Worldwide Availability

Philippines, Native of India.

Botanical Description 17

It is a leafy plant, about 1 to 1.5 meters tall. Leaves are 5 to 6. Their rhizomes are thick, bright yellow inside, cylindric. Leaf blade is oblong, green, in length 30 to 45 cm and 10 to 20 cm in wid

Common Ethnobotanical Use 18

Rhizome of this plant is used mostly, regarded as laxative, diuretic, carminative, stimulant, tonic, vulnerary, emollient, and alexiteric, can be used both externally and internally. While in the treatment sprain, bruises, pains, eye disease, eucoderma, eczema, boils, abscess, itches, scabies, rhizome is used externally. And internally, the plant is mostly used for mothers after delivery and in disorders of blood, and also for fever, cold, cough, oziena, inflammation, dyspepsia, biliousness, and the affections of livers, asthma, gonorrhoea and urinary diseases. Rhizome extract is used in conjunctivitis, where piece of cloth soaked and used to clean several times a day. Powder of rhizome used to gives relief from respiratory problem. The rhizome is taken with leaf of Azadirachta indica in empty stomach, every morning which is good for diabetes. Warm, fresh rhizome paste is applied on cuts and wounds for healing. Rhizome paste or powder mixed with hot rice, mustard oil and table salt is taken for 3-4 days to cure dysentery. Rhizome paste is applied as a poultice with lime to get relief from pain of the sprain. Along with, salts, rhizomes are also used for intestinal worms. Rhizome oil acts as antacid, carminative, stomachic and tonic. Flower paste is used in ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases and also in the gonorrhoea. Flower paste is used for the treatment of stomachache, in ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases and also in the gonorrhea.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
alpha-TerpineolLeaf10
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf10
(2E,6E)-Farnesyl acetateLeaf10
beta-BisaboleneLeaf10
SabineneLeaf10
gamma-TerpineneLeaf10
4-TerpineolFruit11
ThymolLeaf10
beta-ElemeneLeaf10
alpha-HumuleneLeaf10
Humulene epoxide IILeaf10
DopamineLeaf18
beta-PineneFruit11
alpha-PineneFruit11
beta-SesquiphellandreneLeaf10
alpha-MuuroleneLeaf; Root8
MyrceneFruit11
p-CymeneLeaf10
TerpinoleneLeaf10
PatchulaneBark9
allo-AromadendereneLeaf10
ElemolLeaf10
Germacrene D-4-olLeaf10
beta-EudesmolLeaf; Root8
Benzyl benzoateLeaf10
AnnoreticuinLeaf; Seed1, 3
IsoannoreticuinLeaf1
SalsolinolLeaf14
CoclaurineLeaf15
ReticulineRoot2, 13
Kaur-16-ene-19-oic acidBark6, 12
MolvizarinStem Bark4
Rolliniastatin-2Stem Bark4, 5
ReticullacinoneStem Bark4
CopaeneLeaf; Root; Bark8, 9
Rolliniastatin16
Squamosine16
BullatacinSeed; Bark3, 6
cis and trans-IsomurisoleninSeed3
SquamocinSeed3
AcetogeninsSeed17
Germacrene DFruit11
LimoneneFruit11
AnnomonicinLeaf5
SolaminLeaf5
SquamoneLeaf5
Annoreticuin-9-oneSeed; Leaf3, 5
cis-trans-BullactacinoneSeed3
SpathulenolLeaf; Root8
1H-cycloprop(e)azuleneBark9
ReticulatacinBark6
NorushinsunineRoot13
LiriodenineBark; Root6, 13
NeoannoninRoot13
BenzylisoquinolineSeed19
AporphineSeed19
alpha-PhellandreneLeaf10
trans-Sabinene hydrateLeaf10
PinocarvoneLeaf10
delta-TerpineolLeaf10
MyrtenolLeaf10
CuminaldehydeLeaf10
beta-CedreneLeaf10
SesquisabineneLeaf10
ar-CurcumeneLeaf10
ZingibereneLeaf10
(Ε)-gamma-BisaboleneLeaf10
ar-TurmeroneLeaf10
(6S,7R)-BisaboloneLeaf10
(Ε)-alpha-AtlantoneLeaf10
Adriamycin20
14-Hydroxy-25-desoxyrollinicinStem Bark7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Leaf
Ethanol Antibacterial 5
Rhizome
Ethanol Anticancer 1
Chloroform Breast Cancer 7
Methanol Liver Cancer
Whole Plant Leukemia
Methanol; Ethyl Acetate; Aqueous Antibacterial 2
Aqueous Antibacterial 3
Alcohol Antibacterial 4
Essential Oil Antiarthritic 6
Ethanol Antiulcerant 8
Ethanol Antidiabetic
Aqueous Antiviral 10
Essential oil Anticonvulsant 11
Hydroalcohol Anthelmintic 12
Methanol Antiplatelet 13
Essential oil Antiplatelet 14
Aqueous CNS Stimulant 15
Ethanol Cardioprotective

References

  • 1 Kuttan, R., Bhanumathy, P., Nirmala, K. and George, M. (1985) Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Cancer letters, 29, 197-202.
  • 2 Kim, K.J., Yu, H.H., Cha, J.D., Seo, S.J., Choi, N.Y. and You, Y.O. (2005) Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa L. against methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phytotherapy Research, 19, 599-604.
  • 3 Petnual, P., Sangvanich, P. and Karnchanatat, A. (2010) A lectin from the rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and its antifungal, antibacterial, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19, 907-916.
  • 4 Lutomski, J., Kedzia, B. and Debska, W. (1974) Effect of an alcohol extract and of active ingredients from Curcuma longa on bacteria and fungi (author's transl). Planta Medica, 26, 9-19.
  • 5 Saifur, R., Hasan, K., Muslima, J., Biswas, S., Haque, M., Islam, M., Haque, M., Tama, S. and Nirupam, B. (2014) Ethanol extract of Curcuma longa leaf, a potential drug candidate against Bacillus species mediated infections. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 4, 9-14.
  • 6 Funk, J.L., Frye, J.B., Oyarzo, J.N., Zhang, H. and Timmermann, B.N. (2009) Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58, 842-849.
  • 7 Donipati, P. and Sreeramulu, S.H. (2015) INVITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA LONGA AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE MCF-7.
  • 8 Rafatullah, S., Tariq, M., Al-Yahya, M., Mossa, J. and Ageel, A. (1990) Evaluation of turmeric (Curcuma longa) for gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity in rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 29, 25-34.
  • 9 Kuroda, M., Mimaki, Y., Nishiyama, T., Mae, T., Kishida, H., Tsukagawa, M., Takahashi, K., Kawada, T., Nakagawa, K. and Kitahara, M. (2005) Hypoglycemic effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa L. rhizomes) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28, 937-939.
  • 10 Kim, H.J., Yoo, H.S., Kim, J.C., Park, C.S., Choi, M.S., Kim, M., Choi, H., Min, J.S., Kim, Y.S. and Yoon, S.W. (2009) Antiviral effect of Curcuma longa Linn extract against hepatitis B virus replication. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 124, 189-196.
  • 11 Orellana-Paucar, A.M., Serruys, A.-S.K., Afrikanova, T., Maes, J., De Borggraeve, W., Alen, J., León-Tamariz, F., Wilches-Arizábala, I.M., Crawford, A.D. and de Witte, P.A. (2012) Anticonvulsant activity of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids of Curcuma longa in zebrafish and mouse seizure models. Epilepsy & behavior, 24, 14-22.
  • 12 Singh, R., Mehta, A., Mehta, P. and Shukla, K. (2011) Anthelmintic activity of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae). Int J pharm pharm Sci, 3, 236-237.
  • 13 Lee, H. (2006) Antiplatelet property of Curcuma longa L. rhizome-derived ar-turmerone. Bioresource Technology, 97, 1372-1376.
  • 14 Prakash, P., Misra, A., Surin, W.R., Jain, M., Bhatta, R.S., Pal, R., Raj, K., Barthwal, M.K. and Dikshit, M. (2011) Anti-platelet effects of Curcuma oil in experimental models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and thrombosis. Thrombosis research, 127, 111-118.
  • 15 Yu, Z., Kong, L. and Chen, Y. (2002) Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 83, 161-165.
  • 16 El-Sayed, E.M., El-azeem, A.S.A., Afify, A.A., Shabana, M.H. and Ahmed, H.H. (2011) Cardioprotective effects of Curcuma longa L. extracts against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5, 4049-4058.
  • 17 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 18 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.