Echinochloa cruss-galli

Family: Poaceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Sharma (Bangla), English: Barnyard grass, barnyard millet, barn grass, billion dollar grass, chicken panic grass, cocksfoot panicum, cockspur, cockspur grass, German grass, Japanese millet, panic grass, water grass, wild millet.

Local Availability

In roadsides, ditches, along railway lines, and in disturbed areas such as gravel pits and dumps

Worldwide Availability

Topical Forest in all over the world

Botanical Description 6

E. crus-galli is 0.8-1.5 m tall, rather thick, branching at base, an annual grass. It has long, glabrous, elongate, hairless, elongate, 5-20 mm (0.19 - 0.78 inch) wide, 8-60 cm (3.15 - 23.62 inch) lon

Common Ethnobotanical Use 7

The plant is a tonic, acting on the spleen. The roots are boiled to cure indigestion. Preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy for treating carbuncles, haemorrhages, sores, spleen trouble, cancer and wounds. The plant extract is used in diseases of the spleen. The grain of some varieties is eaten by humans in times of scarcity and sometimes used for adulterating fennel. The shoots and/or the roots are applied as a styptic to wounds.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Quercetin 3-O-glucosideGrain1, 2
Octadecanoic acidRoot4
QuercetinGrain1, 2
trans-p-Coumaric acidGrain1, 2
p-Hydroxybenzoic acidLeaf5
Phenol,24 bis(1,1-Dimethylethyl)Root4
Myristic acidRoot4
Diethyl pthalateRoot4
Decanoic acidRoot4
5,7-Dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavoneGrain1, 2
TricinGrain1, 2
Benzoic acid,4-etoxy-,ethyl esterRoot4
Dimethyl phthalateRoot4
2-Methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acidGrain1, 2
p-Hydroxymandelic acidRoot3
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acidRoot3
Mandelic acidRoot3
Butyl 8-methylnonylester-phthalic acidRoot4
gamma-Aminobutyric acidSeed2

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Ethanolic Breast Cancer 1
Ethanolic Colon Cancer 1
Ethanolic Cervical Cancer 1
Ethanolic Liver Cancer 1


  • 1 Molla, S.G.E., Motaal, A.A., Hefnawy, H.E. and Fishawy, A.E. (2016) Cytotoxic activity of phenolic constituents from Echinochloa crus-galli against four human cancer cell lines. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 26, 62-67.
  • 2 Al-Snafi, A.E. (2017) Pharmacology of Echinochloa crus-galli-A review. INDO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, 4, 117-122.
  • 3 Yamamoto, T., Yokotani-Tomita, K., Kosemura, S., Yamamura, S., Yamada, K. and Hasegawa, K. (1999) Allelopathic substance exuded from a serious weed, germinating barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), roots. Journal of plant growth regulation, 18, 65-67.
  • 4 Xuan, T.D., Chung, I.M., Khanh, T.D. and Tawata, S. (2006) Identification of phytotoxic substances from early growth of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) root exudates. Journal of chemical ecology, 32, 895.
  • 5 Esmaeili, M., Heidarzade, A., Pirdashti, H. and Esmaeili, F. (2012) Phytotoxic activity of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galii) on some rice (Oryza sativa) genotipes. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4, 293-297.
  • 6 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 7 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.