Ficus carica L.

Family: Moraceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Anjir (Bengali), Anjir (Hindi), Fig or Fig tree (English)

Local Availability

Rural and Forest area in Bangladesh

Worldwide Availability

Native to the Middle East and western Asia

Botanical Description 13

Growing to a height of 7–10 metres, it’s a large shrub tree with smooth white bark. It has fragrant leaves that are alternate, thick, palmately, 12–25 centimeters (4.7–9.8 in) long and 10–18 centimete

Common Ethnobotanical Use 14

The plant has been traditionally used for its medicinal benefits as metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, antispasmodic, and anti-inflammatory remedy .Leaves, fruits, and roots are used in native medicinal system in different disorders such as gastrointestinal : colic, indigestion, loss of appetite, and diarrhea; respiratory : sore throats, cough, and bronchial problems; inflammatory and cardiovascular disorders. Figs, which are high in carbohydrates, vitamin K, and are a good source of minerals including calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese and dietary fibre because it is fat and cholesterol free and contain high number of amino acids are eaten fresh or dried or used as jam. The dry fruit is a supplement food for diabetics.The fruit’s juice of F. carica mixed with honey is used for haemorrhage. Figs have been conventionally used for their therapeutic benefits as laxative, cardiovascular, respiratory, antispasmodic, and anti-inflammatory remedies . It is used as aid in liver and spleen diseases and its paste is applied to swellings, tumours, and inflammation for relieving pain. In Indian medicine, fruits are used as a mild laxative, expectorant, and diuretic.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
alpha-TerpineolLeaf10
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf10
(2E,6E)-Farnesyl acetateLeaf10
beta-BisaboleneLeaf10
SabineneLeaf10
gamma-TerpineneLeaf10
4-TerpineolFruit11
ThymolLeaf10
beta-ElemeneLeaf10
alpha-HumuleneLeaf10
Humulene epoxide IILeaf10
DopamineLeaf18
beta-PineneFruit11
alpha-PineneFruit11
beta-SesquiphellandreneLeaf10
alpha-MuuroleneLeaf; Root8
MyrceneFruit11
p-CymeneLeaf10
TerpinoleneLeaf10
PatchulaneBark9
allo-AromadendereneLeaf10
ElemolLeaf10
Germacrene D-4-olLeaf10
beta-EudesmolLeaf; Root8
Benzyl benzoateLeaf10
AnnoreticuinLeaf; Seed1, 3
IsoannoreticuinLeaf1
SalsolinolLeaf14
CoclaurineLeaf15
ReticulineRoot2, 13
Kaur-16-ene-19-oic acidBark6, 12
MolvizarinStem Bark4
Rolliniastatin-2Stem Bark4, 5
ReticullacinoneStem Bark4
CopaeneLeaf; Root; Bark8, 9
Rolliniastatin16
Squamosine16
BullatacinSeed; Bark3, 6
cis and trans-IsomurisoleninSeed3
SquamocinSeed3
AcetogeninsSeed17
Germacrene DFruit11
LimoneneFruit11
AnnomonicinLeaf5
SolaminLeaf5
SquamoneLeaf5
Annoreticuin-9-oneSeed; Leaf3, 5
cis-trans-BullactacinoneSeed3
SpathulenolLeaf; Root8
1H-cycloprop(e)azuleneBark9
ReticulatacinBark6
NorushinsunineRoot13
LiriodenineBark; Root6, 13
NeoannoninRoot13
BenzylisoquinolineSeed19
AporphineSeed19
alpha-PhellandreneLeaf10
trans-Sabinene hydrateLeaf10
PinocarvoneLeaf10
delta-TerpineolLeaf10
MyrtenolLeaf10
CuminaldehydeLeaf10
beta-CedreneLeaf10
SesquisabineneLeaf10
ar-CurcumeneLeaf10
ZingibereneLeaf10
(Ε)-gamma-BisaboleneLeaf10
ar-TurmeroneLeaf10
(6S,7R)-BisaboloneLeaf10
(Ε)-alpha-AtlantoneLeaf10
Adriamycin20
14-Hydroxy-25-desoxyrollinicinStem Bark7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Fruit
Aqueous Ethanol Antiplatelet 9
Water Cardioprotective 10
Fruit; Leaf
Methanol; n-Hexane Skin Cancer
Latex
Methanol Antifungal 2
Methanol Antibacterial 2
Hexane Antibacterial 5
Methanol; Hexane; Ethyl Acetate; Chloroform Antiviral 6
Leaf
Chloroform Antidiabetic 8
Aqueous Acetone CNS Depressant 12
Leaf; Fruit
Ethanol Cervical Cancer 1
Methanol Antibacterial 3
Aqueous Antidiabetic 7
Root; Stem Bark
Ethanol Analgesic 11
Stem Bark
Methanol Antibacterial 4

References

  • 1 Khodarahmi, G.A., Ghasemi, N., Hassanzadeh, F. and Safaie, M. (2011) Cytotoxic effects of different extracts and latex of Ficus carica L. on HeLa cell line. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR, 10, 273.
  • 2 Aref, H.L., Salah, K., Chaumont, J.P., Fekih, A., Aouni, M. and Said, K. (2010) In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex). Pak J Pharm Sci, 23, 53-58.
  • 3 Jeong, M.-R., Kim, H.-Y. and Cha, J.-D. (2009) Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract from Ficus carica leaves against oral bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology and Virology, 39, 97-102.
  • 4 Al-Yousuf, H.H.H. (2012) Antibacterial activity of Ficus carica L. extract against six bacterial strains. International Journal of Drug Development and Research, 4.
  • 5 Lazreg-Aref, H., Mars, M., Fekih, A., Aouni, M. and Said, K. (2012) Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of a hexane extract of Tunisian caprifig latex from the unripe fruit of Ficus carica. Pharmaceutical biology, 50, 407-412.
  • 6 Lazreg Aref, H., Gaaliche, B., Fekih, A., Mars, M., Aouni, M., Pierre Chaumon, J. and Said, K. (2011) In vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Ficus carica latex extracts. Natural product research, 25, 310-319.
  • 7 Perez, C., Dominguez, E., Canal, J., Campillo, J. and Torres, M. (2000) Hypoglycaemic activity of an aqueous extract from Ficus carica (fig tree) leaves in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Pharmaceutical biology, 38, 181-186.
  • 8 Canal, J., Torres, M.D., Romero, A. and Pérez, C. (2000) A chloroform extract obtained from a decoction of Ficus carica leaves improves the cholesterolaemic status of rats with streptootocin-includede diabetes. Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 87, 71-76.
  • 9 Gilani, A.H., Mehmood, M.H., Janbaz, K.H., Khan, A.-u. and Saeed, S.A. (2008) Ethnopharmacological studies on antispasmodic and antiplatelet activities of Ficus carica. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 119, 1-5.
  • 10 Gholami, S., Hosseini, M.-J., Jafari, L., Omidvar, F., Kamalinejad, M., Mashayekhi, V., Hosseini, S.H., Kardan, A., Pourahmad, J. and Eskandari, M.R. (2017) Mitochondria as a target for the cardioprotective effects of cydonia oblonga Mill. and Ficus carica L. in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Drug research, 67, 358-365.
  • 11 Modi, R.K., Kawadkar, M., Sheikh, S., Kastwar, R. and Tiwari, G. (2012) A review on: Comparative studies on ethanolic extract of root and stem bark of Ficus carica for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences, 3.
  • 12 Bhanushali, M.M., Makhija, D.T. and Joshi, Y.M. (2014) Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 5, 89.
  • 13 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 14 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.