Ficus religiosa

Family: Moraceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

English: Pipal, Bo-tree, Peepul Tree, Pippala tree, Bodhi tree,Sacred fig, Sacred Ficus; Bengali: Aswatha , Pipal; Pan Bot (Dhaka-Mymensingh),Asvattha, Ashud, Ashvattha

Local Availability

Usually planted as an avenue and shed tree by the road side, village markets, Hindu and Buddist temples throughout the country.

Worldwide Availability

Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, Oceania and Caribbean

Botanical Description 18

Pipal is a large, growing to a height of 25 meters, glabrous, dry season-deciduous tree with irregularly shaped trunk and spreading crown and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 metres.Leaves are alterna

Common Ethnobotanical Use 19

Leaves used for treating constipation, mumps, abscesses and ulcers. Leaves and young shoots are purgative and used in skin diseases. Juice extracted from leaves or powdered leaves used for fevers, wounds, constipation, dysentery, bruises, boils and mumps. Paste of leaf applied on wounds and bruises. Leaf decoction used for toothache pains. Fruit used as digestive and laxative. The dried fruit, pulverized and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. The ripe fruit is cooling and alexipharmac; good for burning sensation, foul taste, thirst, biliousness and diseases of the heart. Seeds are cooling, alterative, laxative and refrigerant; useful in urinary discharges. Bark is astringent. Infusion or decoction of bark used with honey for treatment of gonorrhea, ulcers, skin diseases, and scabies. Powdered bark used for wound healing. Paste of bark and leaves used for stomatitis. Bark also used as antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrheal. Latex combined with juice of roots to treat various skin diseases, including ringworm, athlete's foot, and other fungal affections.Roots used to alleviate inflammation and is good for gout. Bark from roots used for low back pain, stomatitis, and ulcers.Root bark is aphrodisiac. Decoction of root bark mixed with salt and jaggery used for dieresis.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
alpha-TerpineolLeaf10
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf10
(2E,6E)-Farnesyl acetateLeaf10
beta-BisaboleneLeaf10
SabineneLeaf10
gamma-TerpineneLeaf10
4-TerpineolFruit11
ThymolLeaf10
beta-ElemeneLeaf10
alpha-HumuleneLeaf10
Humulene epoxide IILeaf10
DopamineLeaf18
beta-PineneFruit11
alpha-PineneFruit11
beta-SesquiphellandreneLeaf10
alpha-MuuroleneLeaf; Root8
MyrceneFruit11
p-CymeneLeaf10
TerpinoleneLeaf10
PatchulaneBark9
allo-AromadendereneLeaf10
ElemolLeaf10
Germacrene D-4-olLeaf10
beta-EudesmolLeaf; Root8
Benzyl benzoateLeaf10
AnnoreticuinLeaf; Seed1, 3
IsoannoreticuinLeaf1
SalsolinolLeaf14
CoclaurineLeaf15
ReticulineRoot2, 13
Kaur-16-ene-19-oic acidBark6, 12
MolvizarinStem Bark4
Rolliniastatin-2Stem Bark4, 5
ReticullacinoneStem Bark4
CopaeneLeaf; Root; Bark8, 9
Rolliniastatin16
Squamosine16
BullatacinSeed; Bark3, 6
cis and trans-IsomurisoleninSeed3
SquamocinSeed3
AcetogeninsSeed17
Germacrene DFruit11
LimoneneFruit11
AnnomonicinLeaf5
SolaminLeaf5
SquamoneLeaf5
Annoreticuin-9-oneSeed; Leaf3, 5
cis-trans-BullactacinoneSeed3
SpathulenolLeaf; Root8
1H-cycloprop(e)azuleneBark9
ReticulatacinBark6
NorushinsunineRoot13
LiriodenineBark; Root6, 13
NeoannoninRoot13
BenzylisoquinolineSeed19
AporphineSeed19
alpha-PhellandreneLeaf10
trans-Sabinene hydrateLeaf10
PinocarvoneLeaf10
delta-TerpineolLeaf10
MyrtenolLeaf10
CuminaldehydeLeaf10
beta-CedreneLeaf10
SesquisabineneLeaf10
ar-CurcumeneLeaf10
ZingibereneLeaf10
(Ε)-gamma-BisaboleneLeaf10
ar-TurmeroneLeaf10
(6S,7R)-BisaboloneLeaf10
(Ε)-alpha-AtlantoneLeaf10
Adriamycin20
14-Hydroxy-25-desoxyrollinicinStem Bark7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Bark
Aqueous Cervical Cancer 2
Aqueous; Methanol; Petroleum Ether; Chloroform; Hexane Antibacterial
Aqueous Antidiabetic 8
Methanol Antiviral 10
Aqueous Antiviral 11
Methanol Anthelmintic 15
Aqueous Cardioprotective 16
Methanol Analgesic 17
Fig
Methanol Anticonvulsant 13
Leaf
Ether; Acetone Breast Cancer 1
Aqueous Antiasthmatic 4
Hydroalcohol Antiulcerant 6
Ethanol Antiulcerant 7
Leaf; Fruit
Ethanol Antidiabetic 9
Root
Aqueous Anticonvulsant 12
Hydroethanol Anticonvulsant 14
Stem Bark
Ethanol Antiulcerant 5

References

  • 1 Gulecha, V. and Sivakuma, T. (2011) Anticancer activity of Tephrosia purpurea and Ficus religiosa using MCF 7 cell lines. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4, 526-529.
  • 2 Choudhari, A.S., Suryavanshi, S.A. and Kaul-Ghanekar, R. (2013) The aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa induces cell cycle arrest in human cervical cancer cell lines SiHa (HPV-16 Positive) and apoptosis in HeLa (HPV-18 Positive). PLoS One, 8, e70127.
  • 3 Uma, B., Prabhakar, K. and Rajendran, S. (2009) Invitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of Ficus religiosa L. and Ficus bengalensis L. against Diarrhoeal Enterotoxigenic E. coli. Ethnobotanical leaflets, 2009, 7.
  • 4 Kapoor, M., Jasani, N., Acharya, N., Acharya, S. and Kumar, V. (2011) Phytopharmacological evaluation and anti–asthmatic activity of Ficus religiosa leaves. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 4, 642-644.
  • 5 Khan, M.S.A., Hussain, S.A., Jais, A.M.M., Zakaria, Z.A. and Khan, M. (2011) Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa stem bark ethanolic extract in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5, 354-359.
  • 6 Saha, S. and Goswami, G. (2010) Study of anti ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa L. on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 3, 791-793.
  • 7 Gregory, M., Divya, B., Mary, R.A., Viji, M.H., Kalaichelvan, V. and Palanivel, V. (2013) Anti–ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 3, 554-556.
  • 8 Pandit, R., Phadke, A. and Jagtap, A. (2010) Antidiabetic effect of Ficus religiosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 128, 462-466.
  • 9 Choudhary, S., Pathak, A.K., Khare, S. and Kushwah, S. (2011) Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of leaves and fruits of Ficus religiosa Linn. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences, 2.
  • 10 Cagno, V., Civra, A., Kumar, R., Pradhan, S., Donalisio, M., Sinha, B.N., Ghosh, M. and Lembo, D. (2015) Ficus religiosa L. bark extracts inhibit human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection in vitro. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 176, 252-257.
  • 11 Ghosh, M., Civra, A., Rittà, M., Cagno, V., Mavuduru, S.G., Awasthi, P., Lembo, D. and Donalisio, M. (2016) Ficus religiosa L. bark extracts inhibit infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro. Archives of virology, 161, 3509-3514.
  • 12 Patil, M.S., Patil, C., Patil, S. and Jadhav, R. (2011) Anticonvulsant activity of aqueous root extract of Ficus religiosa. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 133, 92-96.
  • 13 Singh, D. and Goel, R.K. (2009) Anticonvulsant effect of Ficus religiosa: role of serotonergic pathways. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 123, 330-334.
  • 14 Singh, D., Singh, B. and Goel, R.K. (2012) Role of saponins for the anticonvulsant effect of adventitious roots of Ficus religiosa. Pharmaceutical biology, 50, 816-822.
  • 15 Iqbal, Z., Nadeem, Q.K., Khan, M., Akhtar, M. and Waraich, F.N. (2001) In vitro anthelmintic activity of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Curcurbita mexicana and Ficus religiosa. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 3, 454-457.
  • 16 Sharma, R., Kumar, A., Srinivasan, B.P., Chauhan, A. and Dubey, K. (2014) Cardioprotective effects of Ficus religiosa in neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology, 4, 53-58.
  • 17 Sreelekshmi, R., Latha, P., Arafat, M., Arafat, M., Shyamal, S., Shine, V., Anuja, G., Suja, S. and Rajasekharan, S. (2007) Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-lipid peroxidation studies on stem bark of Ficus religiosa Linn.
  • 18 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 19 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.