Garcinia cowa Roxb

Family: Clusiaceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Kau (Bengali), Cowa (Bengali), Kaglichu (Bengali), Kao-gola (Bengali), Cow Tree (English), Cowa Mangosteen (English), Kandis (English), Village Kandis (English)

Local Availability

Forests of Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar and Sylhet.

Worldwide Availability

India, China

Botanical Description 28

An evergreen medium-sized tree grows up to 8 - 12 metres tall and 15 - 20cm in diameter. Branches are many, horizontal, borne toward top of trunk, horizontal but usually distally pendulous, slender; t

Common Ethnobotanical Use 29

Fruits are given in headache. Consuming the fruits and young leaves have a laxative effect.Fruit is eaten when the dog is beaten by snake; the affected dog placed in a piece of leaves and also covered with leaves as the treatment. Bark is astringent and used in spasm. Extract of the leaf possesses antibacterial properties. Sun-dried slices of the fruits are used in dysentery. Gum resin is drastic cathartic, may produce nausea and vomiting.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Hexadecanoic acidStem7
beta-sitosterolFruit; Stem7
DaucosterolFruit; Stem7
QuercetinStem2, 7
trans-p-Coumaric acidFruit7
p-Hydroxybenzoic acidStem7
Isovanillic acidStem7
Citric AcidLeaf, Fruit and Rind7, 14
Oxalic acidLeaf, Fruit and Rind7, 14
Tetratriacontanoic acidStem7
Methyl 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) benzoateLeaf1
Garcinisidone ALeaf1
RubraxanthoneLeaf; Stem Bark, Leaf and Root; Fruit1, 3, 7, 13
6-HydroxycalabaxanthoneStem Bark, Leaf and Root; Flower; Fruit; Root3, 4, 7, 10, 19, 20
alpha-MangostinStem Bark, Leaf and Root; Flower; Latex; Fruit; Twig3, 4, 5, 10, 12, 13
CowaninStem Bark, Leaf and Root; Latex; Fruit; Twig; Stem Bark3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 22
6-O-MethylmangostaninFlower; Fruit; Stem Bark4, 10, 13, 17
Garcinianone AFlower; Fruit4, 13
Garcinianone BFruit13
MangostanolFlower; Fruit4, 13
CowaxanthoneLatex; Bark; Latex; Fruit5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17
CowadepsidoneTwig7, 22
2-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanoneLeaf1, 7
MorelloflavoneTwig7, 12
VolkensiflavoneTwig7, 12
FukugisideTwig7, 12
CamboginLeaf; Twig6, 7, 21
Guttiferone BTwig7
Guttiferone FTwig7, 21
Guttiferone KTwig7, 21
Garcicowin ATwig7, 15
Garcicowin CLeaf; Twig6, 15
Garcicowin DLeaf; Twig6, 15
Oblongifolin ATwig7, 15
Oblongifolin BTwig7, 15
Oblongifolin CTwig7, 15
Oblongifolin DTwig7, 15
30-EpicamboginTwig7, 21
Cowaxanthone AFruit; Latex; Stem Bark7, 10, 11, 12, 17
Cowaxanthone CFruit7, 10, 12
Cowaxanthone DFruit; Stem Bark7, 10, 12, 13, 17
Cowaxanthone EFruit7, 10
Cowaxanthone FFruit; Twig7, 10, 12
1,6-Dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthoneFruit7, 10
Cowaxanthone BFruit; Latex; Stem Bark; Root7, 10, 11, 12, 17, 20
Fuscaxanthone CFruit; Stem Bark; Root7, 10, 13, 17, 20
7-O-Methylgarcinone ELatex; Bark; Fruit; Stem Bark5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 16
beta-mangostinBark; Fruit; Twig7, 8, 10, 13, 22
CowanolBark; Latex; Fruit; Stem Bark7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17
1,3,6-Trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthoneLatex7, 9, 11
NorcowaninLatex; Stem Bark; Twig7, 9, 17, 22
Cowagarcinone ALatex7, 11
Cowagarcinone DLatex; Stem Bark7, 11, 17
Cowagarcinone ELatex; Stem Bark; Fruit7, 11, 17, 19
MangostinoneLatex7, 11
Fuscaxanthone ALatex; Fruit; Stem Bark; Root7, 11, 13, 17, 20
1,6-DihydroxyxanthoneTwig7, 12
3,6-Di-O-methyl-gamma-mangostinFruit; Twig7, 13, 22
Nigrolineaxanthone TStem7
Dulxanthone ALeaf; Stem6, 7, 23
4-(1,1-Dimethyl-prop-2-enyl)-1,5,6-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthen-9-(9H)-oneLeaf; Stem Bark1, 7, 25
1,3,5-Trihydroxy-6',6'-dimethyl-2H-pyrano-(2',3':6,7)xanthoneLeaf; Stem6, 7, 23
NorathyriolStem7, 23
1,3,5-Trihydroxy-6-methoxyxanthoneStem7, 23
1,5,6-Trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthoneStem7, 23
1,7-DihydroxyxanthoneStem Bark7, 17, 23
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid lactoneLeaf, Fruit and Rind7, 14
Cowaxanthone GLeaf; Fruit6, 10
Cowaxanthone HLeaf; Fruit6, 10
IsojacareubinLeaf; Root6, 20
Garcimultiflorone ELeaf6
Garcimultiflorone FLeaf6
Garciniagifolone ALeaf6
Symphonone HLeaf6
Xanthone V1Leaf6
Garciniacowone CFruit13
Garciniacowone DFruit13
Garciniacowone EFruit13
3-O-Methylmangostenone DFruit13
(-)-Hydroxycitric acidLeaf, Fruit and Rind
Parvifoliol FStem Bark17
Garcinone DRoot20
Pruniflorone CRoot20
Fuscaxanthone DRoot20
Fuscaxanthone FRoot20
1-Isomangostin hydrateRoot20
Garcicowin BTwig7, 15
Garciniacowone AFruit13
Garciniacowone BFruit13
Methyl 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3,6-dioxocylohexa-1,4-dienyloxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) benzoateLeaf1
[2E,6E,10E]-(+)-4beta-Hydroxy-3-methyl-5beta-(3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl-2-cyclohexen-1-oneStem Bark, Leaf and Root; Leaf3, 1, 7, 25
Garccowaside AStem2
Garccowaside BStem2
Garccowaside CStem2
1,3,6-Trihydoxy-7-methoxy-4-(4-acetoxy-3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)xanthoneStem Bark, Leaf and Root3
GarciniacowolStem Bark17
GarciniacowoneStem Bark17
Cowabenzophenone AFruit18
Cowabenzophenone BFruit18
Garcicowanone AFruit19
Garcicowanone BFruit19
Kaennacowanol ARoot20
Kaennacowanol BRoot20
Kaennacowanol CRoot20
Fuscaxanthone IRoot20

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Fruit Rind
Hexane; Chloroform Antibacterial 27
Stem Bark
Ethanol Breast Cancer 26
Acetone Antibacterial 17


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