Acalypha indica L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Synonyms

Acalypha somalium Muell. Arg., Acalypha bailloniana Müll.Arg.

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Muktajhuri (Bengali), Swetbasanta (Bengali), Biralhatchi (Bengali), Indian Acalypha (English)

Local Availability

In fallow lands throughout the country.

Worldwide Availability

It occurs in Nigeria in West Africa and further widely throughout tropical Africa and the Indian Ocean islands. It also occurs in India, South East Asia, Yemen, and Oceania.

Botanical Description 16

Acalypha indica L. is up to 1 m high. Leaves 2.5-7.5 cm long, ovate or rhomboid-ovate, crenate-serrate. Flowers in numerous lax, erect, elongated axillary spikes, the male minute, clustered near the s

Common Ethnobotanical Use 17

The root of A. indica L. is used as a tonic, astringent, febrifuge and strong purgative. Whole part of the plant is applyed for bronchitis in children. Leaves are used to treat diarrhea, skin disorders, jaundices, piles, rheumatism ulcers, external skin eruptions, eczema, pustules, insect bites. The leaves are laxative and used externally as emollient, a poultice is used for chilblains, in insect bites, swelling, rheumatism and facial paralysis. Root is given in disorders of liver. Leaf is used as analgesic as an antipyretic, it is a remedy for malaria and fever. Root are convenient to treatment of diabetes, antipyretic, abortifacient, demulcent, lessens inflammation and heat of the body. The pulp of the fruit around the seeds is a mild purgative. The stem bark is employed against amenorrhoea, chest pain and swellings.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Quercetin 3-O-glucosideFlower; Leaf8
PentaneLeaf9
StigmasterolLeaf2
Hexadecanoic acidLeaf9
beta-sitosterolLeaf2, 4
DaucosterolLeaf2, 4
Octacosan-1-olLeaf2
SqualeneLeaf9
RutinWhole Plant3
gamma-SitosterolLeaf2
Monogalloyl glucoseWhole Plant3
KaempferolLeaf1, 5
3,4-didehydro-prolineLeaf1
CysteineLeaf1
N-VinylmaleimideLeaf1
4-Amino-3-methoxypyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidineLeaf1
PropanenitrileLeaf1
(E)-3,8-Nonadien-2-oneLeaf1
TriacetonamineLeaf2
AcalyphinLeaf2, 5, 7
AcalyphamideLeaf2, 4
2-MethylanthraquinoneLeaf2, 5
QuinineLeaf2
1,2,3,6-Tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucoseWhole Plant3
CorilaginWhole Plant3
GeraniinWhole Plant3
Repandusinic acid AWhole Plant3
Chebulagic acidWhole Plant3
Potassium BrevifolincarboxylateWhole Plant3
AcaindininWhole Plant3
Succinimide4
Phenol,24 bis(1,1-Dimethylethyl)Leaf5
2-Methyl-3(3-methyl-but-2 enyl)-2-(4-methyl-pent-3-enyl)-oxetaneLeaf5
Trimethyl[4-(1,1,3,3,-tetramethylbutyl) phenoxy]silaneLeaf5
1,3-Dioxolane, 4- Ethyl-5-Octyl-2,2-bis (trifluoromethyl)-,Trans-Leaf5
EpiacalyphinInflorescence; Leaf6
NoracalyphinInflorescence; Leaf6
EpinoracalyphinInflorescence; Leaf6
Acalyphin amideInflorescence; Leaf6
ar-AcalyphidoneInflorescence; Leaf6
seco-AcalyphinInflorescence; Leaf6
BiorobinFlower; Leaf8
NicotiflorinFlower; Leaf8
ClitorinFlower; Leaf8
GalanginFlower; Leaf8
1,1-Diethoxy butaneLeaf9
1,1-Diethoxy pentaneLeaf9
1,1,3-Triethoxy propaneLeaf9
1,1-Diethoxy hexaneLeaf9
2,3-Dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-oneLeaf9
Ethyl pentanoateLeaf9
Ethyl decanoateLeaf9
Trifluoromethyl t-butyl disulfideLeaf9
Didodecyl phthalateLeaf9
PhytolLeaf9
1-Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl etherLeaf9
alpha-TocopherolLeaf9
4-C-Methyl-myo-inositolLeaf9
MauritianinFlower; Leaf8

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Aerial
Methanol Lung Cancer 11
Leaf
Aqueous Breast Cancer 10
Hexane; Chloroform; Ethyl Acetate; Methanol Antibacterial 12
Whole Plant
Chloroform Antifungal 13
Methanol; Acetone Antidiabetic 14
Methanol Antiinflammatory 15
Methanol Analgesic 15

References

  • 1 Hussain, A.Z. and Kumaresan, S. (2013) GC-MS analysis and antibacterial evaluation of Acalypha indica. Asian J Plant Sci Res, 3, 46-49.
  • 2 Mohan, C., Dinakar, S., Anand, T., Elayaraja, R. and SathiyaPriya, B. (2012) Phytochemical, GC-MS analysis and Antibacterial activity of a Medicinal Plant Acalypha indica. Int J Pharm Tech Res, 4, 1050-1054.
  • 3 Ma, Y.T., Chuang, J.I., Lin, J.H. and Hsu, F.L. (1997) Phenolics from Acalypha indica. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 44, 499-502.
  • 4 Talapatra, B., Goswami, S. and Talapatra, S. (1981) Acalyphamide, a new amide and other chemical-constituents of Acalypha-indica Linn. INDIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY SECTION B-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY INCLUDING MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, 20, 974-977.
  • 5 Selvamani, S. and Balamurugan, S. (2015) Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS Analysis of Acetone Leaf Extract of Acalypha indica (Linn.). International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB) P,, P, 3, 229-232.
  • 6 Hungeling, M., Lechtenberg, M., Fronczek, F.R. and Nahrstedt, A. (2009) Cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic pyridone glucosides from Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae). Phytochemistry, 70, 270-277.
  • 7 Nahrstedt, A., Kant, J.-D. and Wray, V. (1982) Acalyphin, a cyanogenic glucoside from Acalypha indica. Phytochemistry, 21, 101-105.
  • 8 Nahrstedt, A., Hungeling, M. and Petereit, F. (2006) Flavonoids from Acalypha indica. Fitoterapia, 77, 484-486.
  • 9 Hussain, A.Z. and Ignatius, A. (2010) GC-MS Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Acalypha indica Linn. Asian Journal of chemistry, 22, 3591.
  • 10 Sivaraj, R., Rahman, P.K., Rajiv, P., Narendhran, S. and Venckatesh, R. (2014) Biosynthesis and characterization of Acalypha indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 129, 255-258.
  • 11 Sanseera, D., Niwatananun, W., Liawruangrath, B., Liawruangrath, S., Baramee, A., Trisuwan, K. and Pyne, S.G. (2012) Antioxidant and anticancer activities from aerial parts of Acalypha indica Linn.
  • 12 Govindarajan, M., Jebanesan, A., Reetha, D., Amsath, R., Pushpanathan, T. and Samidurai, K. (2008) Antibacterial activity of Acalypha indica L. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 12, 299-302.
  • 13 Somchit, M., Rashid, R.A., Abdullah, A., Zuraini, A., Zakaria, Z., Sulaiman, M., Arifah, A. and Mutalib, A. (2010) In vitro antimicrobial activity of leaves of Acalypha indica Linn (Euphorbiaceae). African journal of microbiology research, 4, 2133-2136.
  • 14 Masih, M., Banerjee, T., Banerjee, B. and Pal, A. (2011) Antidiabetic activity of Acalypha indica linn. on normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 3, 51-54.
  • 15 Rahman, M.A., Bachar, S.C. and Rahmatullah, M. (2010) Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Acalypha indica Linn. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci, 23, 256-258.
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  • 17 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.