Helianthus annuus

Family: Asteraceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Surjamukhi (Bangla), Sun flower (English)

Local Availability

As ornamental plant, it is Cultivated all over the world and it is grown as oil-seed crop.

Worldwide Availability

It is popular in countries in Eastern Europe, including Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia, and Ukraine as well as other former U.S.S.R countries.

Botanical Description 54

Helianthus annuus is a stout, coarse and erect plant to 1-2 m in high. Leaves are long in 7-30 cm, opposite at the lower part of the stem, alternate above, ovate, rough, hairy, with toothed margins, l

Common Ethnobotanical Use 55

The flower is used as tea to releave coughs, colds, thereby used as expectorant. It is also known as the tonic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic and antiperiodic. Furthermore, flowers are also used to treat skin diseases, leprosy,anaemia, itching, ascite, ulcers, asthma, bronchitis, fever with regor, urinary discharges piles, ophthalmia and lessen inflammation. Leaves are applied in lumber pain, considered as emetic, and used to treat malaria. While its seeds are also expectorant and diuretic, and also used to treat laryngeal, brochial and pulmonary affection, colds and cough. Infusion of roots used for diabetes.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
beta-Caryophyllene Flower8
Hexadecanoic acidFlower38
Octadecanoic acidFlower38
Linolenic acidFlower38
Oleic acidFlower38
Quinic acidSeed22
Caffeic acidSeed5, 22, 37
ChlorogenateSeed; Stem5, 22, 23, 37
4‑Caffeoylquinic acidSeed5, 37
Methyl chlorogenateSeed5
Bornyl acetateFlower8
3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acidSeed37
Ferulic acidSeed37
Cinnamic AcidSeed22
Shikimic acidSeed22
alpha-Campholene aldehydeFlower8
24-Methylenecycloartanol Flower4
2-Methyl-6-methyleneocta-1,7-dien-3-one / 2,6-Dimethyleneoct-7-en-3-oneFlower8
3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid Seed5, 37
4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid Seed37
3-O-feruloylquinic acidSeed37
3-O-p-Coumaroylquinic acidSeed37
Isochlorogenic acidStem23
p-Isopropylbenzyl alcoholFlower8
Ethyl acetateFlower8
Methyl decanoateFlower8
Dehydrovomifoliol Leaf14
Methyl caffeateSeed5
(+) MedioresinolLeaf16
Gibberellin A-4Seed10
Heliannuol AFlower; Leaf1, 2, 15, 36
LeptocarpinLeaf14, 15, 2
Heliannuol DFlower; Leaf1, 2, 15, 36
Helieudesmanolide ALeaf2
Annuolide GLeaf2
Niveusin BLeaf2
Kukulkanin BLeaf2, 12, 14
Heliannone ALeaf2, 12, 14
HelianolFlower3, 4
Benzyl alcohol-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-beta-D-(4-O-caffeoyl)glucopyranosideSeed5
Annuionone HLeaf6
Grandifloric acidFlower; Leaf7, 18, 20, 25, 34
Angeloylgrandifloric acidFlower7
Ent-kaurane-16-en-19-oic acidFlower7
Ent-kaurane-16beta,17-dihydroxy-19-oic acidFlower7
Ciliaric acidFlower; Leaf7, 20, 21
2-Butenoic acid,3-methyl-, methyl esterFlower8
Perillyl acetateFlower8
Pentyl benzoateFlower8
Gibberellin A1Seed10
Gibberellin A19Seed10
Gibberellin A20Seed10
Gibberellin A45Seed10
Gibberellin A67Seed10
Gibberellin A72Seed10
Gibberellin A64Seed10
Gibberellin A65Seed10
Gibberellin A66Seed10
Abscisic acidSeed10
Dihydrophaseic acidSeed10
Dioxindole-3-acetic acidSeed10
Ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acidSeed; Flower10, 24, 34, 27
Beyerenoic acidSeed10
Heliannone BLeaf12, 14, 28
Heliannone CLeaf12, 28
TambulinLeaf12, 14
Annuionone ALeaf13
Annuionone BLeaf13
Annuionone CLeaf13
Helivypolide DLeaf14
Helivypolide ELeaf14
Annuolide FLeaf14
Heliannuol JLeaf14, 39
Annuionone DLeaf14
Annuolide ELeaf15
Heliannuol CFlower; Leaf1, 15, 36
Heliannuol FLeaf15, 39
Heliannuol GLeaf15, 39
Heliannuol HLeaf15, 39
Heliannuol ILeaf15, 39
Annuionone ELeaf15
Heliannuol LLeaf15
Helibisabonol ALeaf15
Helibisabonol BLeaf15
Buddlenol ELeaf16
Dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcoholLeaf16
Heliespirone BLeaf17
Heliespirone CLeaf17
Heliespirone ALeaf17
(−)-Kaur-16-en-19-oic acidLeaf; Stem; Flower18, 23, 26
4,5-Dihydroniveusin ALeaf20
Argophyllin ALeaf20
Argophyllin BLeaf20, 32
3-Methoxy-1,2-anhydridoniveusin ALeaf21
3-O-Methylniveusin ALeaf21
1-Methoxy-4,5-dihydroniveusin ALeaf21
AnnuithrinStem; Leaf; Leaf and Stem23, 32, 30
Trachyloban-19-oic acidStem23
Ent-trachyloban-19-oic acidFlower24
Dehydrocostus lactoneRoot29
GermacranolideLeaf and Stem31, 30
Glandulone ALeaf33
Glandulone BLeaf33
Glandulone CLeaf33
Helikaurolide AFlower34
Helikaurolide BFlower34
Helikaurolide CFlower34
Helikaurolide DFlower34
Helivypolide FFlower34
Helianthoside 1Flower35
Helianthoside 2Flower35
Helianthoside 3Flower35
Helianthoside BFlower35
Heliannuol BFlower1, 36
Heliannuol EFlower1, 36
15beta-Hydroxy-ent-trachyloban-19-oic acidFlower25
Paniculoside IVLeaf18
Helianthoside 4Flower35
Heliannuol MLeaf2
Helivypolide KLeaf; Flower2, 34
Helivypolide LLeaf2
Helieudesmanolide BLeaf2
15beta-Hydroxy-Gibberellin A17Seed10
15beta-Hydroxy Gibberellin A19Seed10
15beta-Hydroxy Gibberellin A44 Seed10
15beta-Hydroxy Gibberellin A53Seed10
Trachylobanic acidSeed10
1-Palmitoyl-2-linolenoyl-glycero-3-phosphatidic acidFlower11
Helikauranoside ALeaf18
17-Hydroxy-ent-isokaur-15(16)-en-19-oic acidLeaf20
17-Hydroxy-16alpha-ent-kauran-19-oic acidFlower25
Loliolide acetateFlower27
Helianthoside 5Flower35

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Methanol Antibacterial 40
Hydroalcohol Antiulcerant 46
Methanol Antidiabetic 48
Ethanol Analgesic 52
Ethanol Antiinflammatory 52
Aqueous Antifungal 44
Methanol Antidiabetic 50
Methanol Antibacterial 41
Oil Antibacterial 41
Hexane Leukemia 42
Hexane Rhabdomyosarcoma 42
Methanol Antifungal 43
Aqueous Antiasthmatic 45
Ethanol Antidiabetic 47
Aqueous Antidiabetic 49
Methanol CNS Stimulant 51
Methanol CNS Depressant 51
Methanol Analgesic 53


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