Ipomoea aquatica

Family: Convulvulaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Kalmi (Bengali), Kalmi Shak (Bengali), Weng cai (Chinese), Espinaca acuática (Spanish), Wasserspinat (German), Water spinach (English)

Local Availability

All over the country in ponds lakes and swamps.

Worldwide Availability

It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Botanical Description 21

Ipomoea aquaticais awidely spreadingsmooth vinewith the stems trailing on mud or floating on water. Leaves are oblong-ovate, 7-14 cm long with a pointed tip and heart-shaped or arrow-shaped base, long

Common Ethnobotanical Use 22

The young shoots are mildly laxative and are used by diabetic patients. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat coughs. The fried leaves are eaten to cool down a fever.The crushed leaves are applied as a poultice on sores and boils.The buds are used in the treatment of ringworm.Flower juice is given to inflamed eyes as a drop. The root juice is used for diarrhoea .Plants are anthelmintic and carminative; useful in leucoderma, leprosy, fever, jaundice, biliousness, bronchitis and liver complaints.It is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. The juice of the plant is used as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning; it is also used in liver complaints.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Hexadecanoic acidWhole Plant6
beta-sitosterolSeed12
MyricetinWhole Plant11, 12
alpha-HumuleneWhole Plant6
HexacosaneWhole Plant6
LuteolinWhole Plant11, 12
QuercetinWhole Plant5
RiboflavinWhole Plant11, 12
RutinWhole Plant5
KaempferolWhole Plant11, 12
PhytolWhole Plant6
alpha-TocopherolWhole Plant11, 12
(Z)-3-HexenolWhole Plant6
HentriacontaneSeed12
ApigeninWhole Plant5
Beta-CaroteneWhole Plant4, 7
Vitamin-CWhole Plant11, 12
Isorhamnetin1
Malic AcidWhole Plant11
Citric AcidWhole Plant11
RetinolWhole Plant12
N-trans-FeruloyltyramineWhole Plant8
LuteinWhole Plant4, 7
ZeaxanthinWhole Plant4
NiacinWhole Plant11, 12
Lutein-5,6-epoxideWhole Plant4, 7
Oxalic acidWhole Plant11
cis-beta-CaroteneWhole Plant11
VioloxanthinWhole Plant4, 7
NeoxanthinWhole Plant4, 7
LuteoxanthinWhole Plant4
AuroxanthinWhole Plant4
AntheraxanthinWhole Plant4
FlavoxanthinWhole Plant4
Quercetin 4'-methyl ether1
7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-dihydroquercetin-3-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosideLeaf2
Calystegine B1Whole Plant8
N‑cis-FeruloyltyramineWhole Plant8
1‑(14‑methylhexadecanoyl)pyrrolidineStem; Leaf9, 10
MutatoxanthinWhole Plant4, 7
bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) sebacateWhole Plant6
Aquaterin IWhole Plant3
Aquaterin IIWhole Plant3
Aquaterin IIIWhole Plant3
Aquaterin IVWhole Plant3
Aquaterin VWhole Plant3
Aquaterin VIWhole Plant3
Aquaterin VIIWhole Plant3
Aquaterin VIIIWhole Plant3
Aquaterin IXWhole Plant3
Aquaterin XWhole Plant3
Aquaterin XIWhole Plant3

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Leaf
Methanol Lung Cancer 13
Ethanol Prostate Cancer 14
Methanol Antibacterial 15
Aqueous; Chloroform; Ethanol Antiulcerant 16
Methanol Antidiabetic 17
Aqueous; Methanol Antidiabetic 18
Methanol CNS Depressant 19
Whole Plant
Ethanol Leukemia 20

References

  • 1 Daniel, M. (1989) Polyphenols of some Indian vegetables. Current Science, 58, 1332-1334.
  • 2 Prasad, K.N., Divakar, S., Shivamurthy, G.R. and Aradhya, S.M. (2005) Isolation of a free radical‐scavenging antioxidant from water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 1461-1468.
  • 3 Fan, B.-Y., Gu, Y.-C., He, Y., Li, Z.-R., Luo, J.-G. and Kong, L.-Y. (2014) Cytotoxic resin glycosides from Ipomoea aquatica and their effects on intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Journal of natural products, 77, 2264-2272.
  • 4 Wills, R. and Rangga, A. (1996) Determination of carotenoids in Chinese vegetables. Food Chemistry, 56, 451-455.
  • 5 Datta, S., Sinha, M., Das, D., Ghosh, S. and Dhar, P. (2013) Protective effect of secondary plant metabolites from Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. against carbofuran induced damages.
  • 6 Kameoka, H., Kubo, K. and Miyazawa, M. (1992) Essential oil components of water-convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 4, 219-222.
  • 7 Chen, B., Yang, S. and Han, L. (1991) Characterization of major carotenoids in water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) by open-column, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 543, 147-155.
  • 8 Malakar, C. and Choudhury, P.P.N. (2015) Pharmacological Potentiality and medicinal uses of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk: A Review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 8, 60-63.
  • 9 Tofern, B., Mann, P., Kaloga, M., Jenett-Siems, K., Witte, L. and Eich, E. (1999) Aliphatic pyrrolidine amides from two tropical convolvulaceous species. Phytochemistry, 52, 1437-1441.
  • 10 Yajima, A. and YABuTA, G. (2001) Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of MQ-A3 [1-(14'-Methylhexadecanoyl) pyrrolidine], a Novel Aliphatic Pyrrolidine Amide from the Tropical Convolvulaceous Species. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 65, 463-465.
  • 11 Prasad, K.N., Shivamurthy, G. and Aradhya, S. (2008) Ipomoea aquatica, an underutilized green leafy vegetable: a review. International Journal of Botany, 4, 123-129.
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  • 15 Bhakta, J., Majumdar, P. and Munekage, Y. (2009) Antimicrobial efficacies of methanol extract of Asteracantha longifolia, Ipomoea aquatica and Enhydra fluctuans against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. Int J Alter Med, 7.
  • 16 Muthukumaran, P. and Pattabiraman, K. (2010) Anti-Ulcer Effects of Ipomoea aquatica forsk Leaves Against Gastric Ulcers in Rats. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2, 471-474.
  • 17 Hamid, K., Ullah, M.O., Sultana, S., Howlader, M.A., Basak, D., Nasrin, F. and Rahman, M.M. (2011) Evaluation of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica for its hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity. Journal of pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3, 1330-1333.
  • 18 Sokeng, S., Rokeya, B., Hannan, J., Junaida, K., Zitech, P., Ali, L., Ngounou, G., Lontsi, D. and Kamtchouing, P. (2007) Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation. Fitoterapia, 78, 526-529.
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