Juglans regia

Family: Juglandaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Akhrot (Bangla), English walnut (English)

Local Availability

Eastern extent in Bangladesh

Worldwide Availability

Native to the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe, but often found growing wild eastward to Himalayas and China. Widely cultivated throughout this region and elsewhere in temperate zone of the Old and New World. Thrives in temperate Himalayas from 1,00

Botanical Description 45

Juglans regia trees characteristics features are bark brown or gray in color, smooth, fissured; leaf-scars without prominent pubescent band on upper edge. Plant is 12–15 m tall (Payne vars.), 17–20 m

Common Ethnobotanical Use 46

Used in folk remedies for aegilops, cancer (especially cancerous conditions of the breast, epithelium, fauces, groin, gullet, intestine, kidneys, lip, liver, mammas, mouth, stomach, throat, and uterus), carbuncles, carcinoma, condylomata acuminata, corns, excrescences, growth, indurations, tumors, warts, whitlows, anthrax, asthma, backache, caligo, chancre, colic, conjunctivitis, cough, dysentery, eczema, ejaculation, favus, heartburn, impotence, inflammation, intellect, intestine, intoxication, kidney, legs, leucorrbea, lungs, rheumatism, scrofula, sore, syphilis, and worms. Reported to be alterative, anodyne, anthelmintic, astringent, bactericide, cholagogue, depurative, detergent, digestive, diuretic, hemostat, insecticidal, laxative, lithontryptic, stimulant, tonic, and vermifuge.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
HexanalFruit3
LimoneneLeaf13, 14, 17
1,8-CineoleLeaf13, 14
LinaloolLeaf13, 14
NonanalFruit3
alpha-TerpineolLeaf13
NeralLeaf13
EugenolLeaf; Fruit14, 15, 17
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf13, 14, 17
LupeolLeaf17, 18
StigmasterolFruit; Leaf4, 9
Hexadecanoic acidFruit1, 4, 5, 17
beta-sitosterolFruit11, 4, 3, 17, 18
DaucosterolLeaf17, 18
HyperosideLeaf17
Linoleic acidFruit1, 4, 5, 17
beta-FarneseneLeaf13
(E)-octadec-9-enoic acidFruit4
Octadecanoic acidFruit1, 4, 17
delta-CadineneLeaf13, 14
beta-BisaboleneLeaf13
(E,E)-alpha-farneseneLeaf13
SabineneLeaf13, 14, 17
gamma-TerpineneLeaf13, 14
Isopentyl 2-methylbutanoateLeaf13
CamphorLeaf13
4-TerpineolLeaf13, 14
Methyl salicylateLeaf13, 14
Linalool acetateLeaf13
(E)-2-decenalFruit3
CyclosativeneLeaf14
beta-CubebeneLeaf13
trans-alpha-bergamoteneLeaf13
Germacrene DLeaf13, 14, 17
BicyclogermacreneLeaf14
Caryophyllene oxideLeaf13, 14
alpha-CadinolLeaf13
CampesterolFruit; Leaf4, 9
CycloartenolFruit3
Gallic-acidPericarp; Fruit8, 17, 19
Docosan-1-olFruit3
Heptacosan-1-olFruit3
n-Hexacosan-1-olFruit3
Octacosan-1-olFruit3
Pentacosan-1-olFruit3
Vanillic acidPericarp; Fruit8, 17, 19
VanillinFlower17, 23
SyringaldehydeFruit6, 17
trans-p-Coumaric acidFruit; Leaf6, 9, 17
p-Hydroxybenzoic acidFruit17, 19
Linolenic acidFruit1, 4, 5, 17
Oleic acidFruit1, 4, 5, 17
Ellagic acidFruit6
RutinFlower17, 23
Ethyl gallateFruit17, 19
Caffeic acidFruit; Pericarp6, 8, 17
Protocatechuic acidPericarp; Fruit8, 17, 19
Quercitin-3-galactosylLeaf7, 9
Arachidic AcidFruit4
alpha-TocopherolFruit1, 2, 3
ChlorogenateFruit; Leaf6, 7, 17
QuercitrinLeaf7, 9, 17
beta-PineneLeaf13, 14, 17
alpha-PineneLeaf13, 14, 17
OcimeneLeaf13, 14
CampheneLeaf13, 14, 17
alpha-MuuroleneLeaf13, 14
delta-3-CareneLeaf13, 14
MyrceneLeaf13, 14, 17
p-CymeneLeaf13, 14
TerpinoleneLeaf13, 14
(Z)-3-HexenolLeaf13
Bornyl acetateLeaf13, 14
MyrtenalLeaf14
(Z)-beta-FarneseneLeaf13
alpha-ThujeneLeaf13
cis-beta-OcimeneLeaf14
PyrogallolFruit17, 19
Myristic acidFruit4
4-Hydroxy-alpha-tetralonePericarp8
Betulinic acidStem Bark17, 20
gamma-EudesmolLeaf13
alpha-MuurololLeaf13
alpha-PhellandreneLeaf13
MyrtenolLeaf14
ar-CurcumeneLeaf13
ZingibereneLeaf13
gamma-CurcumeneLeaf13
alpha-TerpineneLeaf13, 14
HexanolLeaf; Fruit13, 3
Beta-CaroteneFruit3
Quercetin-3-glucosideFlower17, 25
Eicosenoic acidFruit4
Behenic acidFruit4
CholesterolFruit4
delta5-AvenasterolFruit; Leaf4, 9
delta7-AvenasterolFruit4
Ferulic acidFruit; Pericarp6, 8, 17
beta-TocopherolFruit1, 2, 3
gamma-TocopherolFruit1, 2, 3
delta-TocopherolFruit1, 2
2-Methoxy-4-methyl phenolFruit15
2,6-Dimethoxy PhenolFruit15
GuaiacolFruit15
4-ethylguaiacolFruit15
4-methylsyringolFruit15
1-HeptanolLeaf13
Syringic acidFruit; Pericarp6, 8
BorneolLeaf13, 14
DihydrocarveolLeaf13
GeranialLeaf13
Neryl acetateLeaf13
alpha-CubebeneLeaf13
1-TetracosanolFruit3
cis-3-Hexenyl butanoateLeaf13
2,6-Octadien-1-ol,3,7-dimethyl-,acetateLeaf14
TricosanolFruit3
epi-alpha-CadinolLeaf14
gamma-Linolenic acidFruit4
Margaric acidFruit4
Eicosadienoic acidFruit4
cis-Vaccenic acidFruit4
alpha-CopaeneLeaf13, 14
beta-CopaeneLeaf13
(E)-Sabinol Leaf14
7-epi-SesquithujeneLeaf13
gamma-CadineneLeaf13, 14
alpha-LongipineneLeaf13
PlumbaginFruit10
(Z)-3-Hexenyl benzoateLeaf14
ClerosterolFruit4
3-O-p-Coumaroylquinic acidLeaf7, 9, 17
beta-LongipineneLeaf13
Sinapic acidFruit6, 17
Isochlorogenic acid17
5-Hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavoneLeaf17, 18
Ethyl hexanoateLeaf13
Kaempferol-3,4'-dimethyl etherLeaf17, 18
PentanalFruit3
Ethyl 3-methylbutanoateLeaf13
Dehydrovomifoliol Pericarp8, 17
Phenol,4-propyl-2-methoxy-Fruit15
gamma-TocotrienolFruit2
JugloneFruit; Stem Bark6, 10, 20
cis-9, trans-12-Octadecadienoic AcidFruit4
cis-13,16-Docosadienoic AcidFruit4
delta-7-StigmasterolFruit4
(4S)-(+) IsoscleronePericarp8
5,8-Dihydroxy-4-methoxy-alpha-tetralonePericarp8
4,5-Dihydroxy-alpha-tetralonePericarp8
5-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-alpha-tetralonePericarp8
2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic AcidPericarp8
Juglanin BPericarp; Fruit8, 12, 24
Juglanone BPericarp8, 17, 21
(3E)-Hexenyl acetateLeaf13
(E)-Myrtanol acetateLeaf13
SesquithujeneLeaf13
(Z)-alpha-BergamoteneLeaf13
(E)-Muurola-3,5-dieneLeaf13
alpha-HumuleneLeaf13, 14
alpha-NeocallitropseneLeaf13
gamma-AmorpheneLeaf13
(Z)-alpha-BisaboleneLeaf13
SpathulenolLeaf13
(Z)-Cadin-4-en-7-olLeaf13
LaureneneLeaf14
Juglanin APericarp; Fruit12, 17, 24
Glansreginin ASeed16
Glansreginin BSeed16
4-p-Coumaroylquinic AcidLeaf7, 9, 17
Quercetin 3-arabinosideLeaf7, 9
Quercetin 3-xylosideLeaf7, 9
Quercetin 3-pentoside Leaf7, 9
Kaempferol 3-pentosideLeaf7
4-EthylsyringolFruit15
4-PropylsyringolFruit15
Quercetin 3-D-xylosideLeaf17
Quercetin 3-L-arabinosideLeaf17
Quercetin 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside17
Quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside17
RegioloneLeaf; Fruit17, 18, 24
4-Hydroxy-alpha-tetraloneLeaf17, 18
Tetracosanoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl esterFlower17, 23
XanthophyllFruit3
Chlorophyll aFruit3
Chlorophyll bFruit3
Juglanone APericarp8, 17, 21
Juglanin CFruit17, 24
Glansrin ASeed17, 22
Glansrin BSeed17, 22
Glansrin CSeed17, 22

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Bark
Ethyl Acetate Antibacterial 31
Fruit
Chloroform; Ethyl Acetate Liver Cancer 43
Green Husk
Organic Prostate Cancer 28
Husk
Polyphenol Antiplatelet 38
Crude Antiplatelet 39
Leaf
Chloroform Colon Cancer 44
Chloroform Oral Cancer 44
Chloroform Breast Cancer 44
Aqueous Antibacterial 9
Oil Antibacterial 14
Hydroalcohol Antiulcerant 32
Ethanol Antidiabetic 33
Hydroalcohol Antidiabetic 34
Alcoholic Antidiabetic 35
Aqueous; Ethanol Antidiabetic 36
Ethanol Antiviral 37
Petroleum Ether; Methanol; Aqueous Anthelmintic 42
Root Bark
Organic Breast Cancer 27
Seed; Green Husk; Leaf
Methanol; Petroleum Ether Renal Cancer 26
Stem Bark
Crude Antifungal 29
Methanol; Ethanol; Benzene Anthelmintic 41
Whole Plant
Methanol; Ethyl Acetate Antifungal 30
Methanol Anticonvulsant 40

References

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