Limnophila indica

Family: Scrophulariaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Karpur ( Bengali), Ambuja ( Bengali), You gengshi long wei ( Chinese), Ambulie de l'Inde (French), Kuttra ( Hindi)

Local Availability

Throughout the country in low-lying, moist areas, swamps and rice-fields.

Worldwide Availability

Australia, Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), India (Assam, Goa, Jammu-Kashmir, Karaikal, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Mahé, Manipur, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democ

Botanical Description 16

A small aromatic herb, 7.5-20 cm high, smelling strongly of turpentine; stems subquadrangular, rooting at the lower nodes. Leaves usually all whorled and pinnatifid, the upper sometimes entire and opp

Common Ethnobotanical Use 17

Plant is believed to be antiseptic. A liniment made from the plant with coconut oil is used in elephantiasis. Juice of the plant rubbed over body in pestilent fevers and combined with ginger and cumin given internally in dysentery.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
beta-sitosterolAerial Part and Root8, 2
5,2'-Dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavoneWhole Plant; Aerial Part and Root6, 2, 7, 8
5-Hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavoneWhole Plant6, 2
Limonene2, 10
5,7,3',4'-TetramethoxyflavoneWhole Plant6, 2, 3
3-Oxo-olean-12(13),18(19)-dien-29alpha-carboxylic acid Aerial Part and Root1, 2, 3
5-Hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-3’,4’-methylenedioxyflavoneAerial Part and Root4, 2, 5, 3
(2S)-5,7,3',4'-TetramethoxyflavanoneWhole Plant6
5,7,2',5'-TetramethoxyflavoneWhole Plant6, 2, 5, 3
5-Hydroxy-7,2'-dimethoxyflavoneWhole Plant; Aerial Part and Root6, 2, 7, 8
5,6-Dihydroxy-4',7,8-trimethoxyflavoneAerial Part and Root9, 8, 2
D-Perillaldehyde2, 10
5,8-Dihydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavoneAerial Part and Root11, 2, 5, 3
5,2'-Dihydroxy-8,3',4'-trimethoxyflavoneAerial Part and Root8, 2, 5, 3
3',4'-Ethylenedioxy-5-hydroxy-3-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-6,7-dimethyl-5'-methoxyflavone-8-carboxylic acidAerial Part and Root12, 2, 5, 3

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Aerial; Root
Ethyl Acetate Antibacterial 14
Benzene Antibacterial 9
Whole Plant
Methanol Antibacterial 13
Methanol Antidiarrhoeal 13
Aqueous Breast Cancer 15

References

  • 1 Brahmachari, G., Mandal, N.C., Roy, R., Ghosh, R., Barman, S., Sarkar, S., Jash, S.K. and Mondal, S. (2013) A new pentacyclic triterpene with potent antibacterial activity from Limnophila indica Linn.(Druce). Fitoterapia, 90, 104-111.
  • 2 Gorai, D., Jash, S.K. and Sarkar, A. (2013) International Journal of Natural Products Research.
  • 3 Brahmachari, G. (2014) Limnophila (Scrophulariaceae): Chemical and Pharmaceutical Aspects-An Update. The Open Natural Products Journal, 7.
  • 4 Mukherjee, K., Brahmachari, G., Manna, T. and Mukherjee, P. (1998) A methylenedioxy flavone from Limnophila indica. Phytochemistry, 49, 2533-2534.
  • 5 Brahmachari, G. (2008) Limnophila (Scrophulariaceae): Chemical and pharmaceutical aspects. The open natural products Journal, 1, 34-43.
  • 6 Reddy, N.P., Reddy, B.A., Gunasekar, D., Blond, A., Bodo, B. and Murthy, M.M. (2007) Flavonoids from Limnophila indica. Phytochemistry, 68, 636-639.
  • 7 Dutta, P. and Dutta, M. (2012) Ab initio and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Study of the Structural and Spectral Properties of Two Flavones Derived from Limnophila indica Species. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 24, 1657.
  • 8 Brahmachari, G., Jash, S., Gangopadhyay, A., Sarkar, S., Laskar, S. and Gorai, D. (2008) Chemical constituents of Limnophila indica.
  • 9 Brahmachari, G., Mandal, N.C., Jash, S.K., Roy, R., Mandal, L.C., Mukhopadhyay, A., Behera, B., Majhi, S., Mondal, A. and Gangopadhyay, A. (2011) Evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of two flavonoids isolated from Limnophila plants. Chemistry & biodiversity, 8, 1139-1151.
  • 10 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.
  • 11 Brahmachari, G., Gorai, D., Chatterjee, D., Mondal, S. and Mistri, B. (2004) 5, 8-Dihydroxy-6, 7, 4'-trimethoxyflavone, a novel flavonoid constituent of Linmophila indica.
  • 12 Brahmachari, G., Sohel, S., Mondal, D.G.S. and Misrti, B. (2003) An ethylenedioxy flavonoid carboxylic acid from Limnophila indica. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 50, 325-328.
  • 13 Subhadra, S., Gade, G., Ravindran, V.K., Emani, V.S., Parre, S. and Banji, D. (2012) In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the inhibitory effect of Limnophila indica (Linn.) Druce on shigellosis. Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine, 10, 538-545.
  • 14 Brahmachari, G., Mandal, N.C., Roy, R., Ghosh, R., Barman, S., Sarkar, S., Jash, S.K. and Mondal, S. (2013) A new pentacyclic triterpene with potent antibacterial activity from Limnophila indica Linn. (Druce). Fitoterapia, 90, 104-111.
  • 15 Uddin, S.J., Grice, I.D. and Tiralongo, E. (2011) Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 7.
  • 16 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 17 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.